skip to main content


Title: Using heparan sulfate octadecasaccharide (18-mer) as a multi-target agent to protect against sepsis
Sepsis is a lethal syndrome manifested by an unregulated, overwhelming inflammation from the host in response to infection. Here, we exploit the use of a synthetic heparan sulfate octadecasaccharide (18-mer) to protect against sepsis. The 18-mer not only inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of extracellular histone H3 and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), but also elicits the anti-inflammatory effect from apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). We demonstrate that the 18-mer protects against sepsis-related injury and improves survival in cecal ligation and puncture mice and reduces inflammation in an endotoxemia mouse model. The 18-mer neutralizes the cytotoxic histone-3 (H3) through direct interaction with the protein. Furthermore, the 18-mer enlists the actions of ApoA-I to dissociate the complex of HMGB1 and lipopolysaccharide, a toxic complex contributing to cell death and tissue damage in sepsis. Our study provides strong evidence that the 18-mer mitigates inflammatory damage in sepsis by targeting numerous mediators, setting it apart from other potential therapies with a single target.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1933525
NSF-PAR ID:
10406379
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Volume:
120
Issue:
4
ISSN:
0027-8424
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Sepsis is characterized by an overactive, dysregulated inflammatory response that drives organ dysfunction and often results in death. Mathematical modeling has emerged as an essential tool for understanding the underlying complex biological processes. A system of four ordinary differential equations (ODEs) was developed to simulate the dynamics of bacteria, the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, and tissue damage (whose molecular correlate is damage-associated molecular pattern [DAMP] molecules and which integrates inputs from the other variables, feeds back to drive further inflammation, and serves as a proxy for whole-organism health status). The ODE model was calibrated to experimental data from E. coli infection in genetically identical rats and was validated with mortality data for these animals. The model demonstrated recovery, aseptic death, or septic death outcomes for a simulated infection while varying the initial inoculum, pathogen growth rate, strength of the local immune response, and activation of the pro-inflammatory response in the system. In general, more septic outcomes were encountered when the initial inoculum of bacteria was increased, the pathogen growth rate was increased, or the host immune response was decreased. The model demonstrated that small changes in parameter values, such as those governing the pathogen or the immune response, could explain the experimentally observed variability in mortality rates among septic rats. A local sensitivity analysis was conducted to understand the magnitude of such parameter effects on system dynamics. Despite successful predictions of mortality, simulated trajectories of bacteria, inflammatory responses, and damage were closely clustered during the initial stages of infection, suggesting that uncertainty in initial conditions could lead to difficulty in predicting outcomes of sepsis by using inflammation biomarker levels. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Neutrophils produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by expelling their extracellular chromatin embedded with citrullinated histone H3, myeloperoxidase, and other intracellular molecules. Since their discovery in 2004, numerous articles have demonstrated the mechanism of NET formation and their function in innate immunity and inflammation. NET components often play an antimicrobial role, but excessive NETs are deleterious and can cause inflammation and tissue damage. This review highlights recent advancements in the identification of novel pathways and mechanisms of NET formation. We also focus on the specific damaging impact of NETs in individual organs. We then discuss the progress and limitations of various NET detection assays. Collectively, these vital aspects of NETs significantly improve our understanding of the pathobiology of NETs and future diagnostics and therapeutic tools for examining and modulating NETs in inflammatory diseases.

     
    more » « less
  3. Carriers of heterozygous germline BAP1 mutations ( BAP1 +/− ) are affected by the “BAP1 cancer syndrome.” Although they can develop almost any cancer type, they are unusually susceptible to asbestos carcinogenesis and mesothelioma. Here we investigate why among all carcinogens, BAP1 mutations cooperate with asbestos. Asbestos carcinogenesis and mesothelioma have been linked to a chronic inflammatory process promoted by the extracellular release of the high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). We report that BAP1 +/− cells secrete increased amounts of HMGB1, and that BAP1 +/− carriers have detectable serum levels of acetylated HMGB1 that further increase when they develop mesothelioma. We linked these findings to our discovery that BAP1 forms a trimeric protein complex with HMGB1 and with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) that modulates HMGB1 acetylation and its release. Reduced BAP1 levels caused increased ubiquitylation and degradation of HDAC1, leading to increased acetylation of HMGB1 and its active secretion that in turn promoted mesothelial cell transformation. 
    more » « less
  4. Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, especially cardiomyopathy, a condition in which the smooth muscles of the heart become thick and rigid, affecting the functioning of cardiomyocytes, the contractile cells of the heart. Uncontrolled elevated glucose levels over time can result in oxidative stress, which could lead to inflammation and altered epigenetic mechanisms. In the current study, we investigated whether hyperglycemia can modify cardiac function by directly affecting these changes in cardiomyocytes. To evaluate the adverse effect of high glucose, we measured the levels of gap junction protein, connexin 43, which is responsible for modulating cardiac electric activities and Troponin I, a part of the troponin complex in the heart muscles, commonly used as cardiac markers of ischemic heart disease. AC16 human cardiomyocyte cells were used in this study. Under hyperglycemic conditions, these cells demonstrated altered levels of connexin 43 and Troponin-I after 24 h of exposure. We also examined hyperglycemia induced changes in epigenetic markers: H3K9me1, Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), and histone deacetylase (HDAC)-2 as well as in inflammatory and stress-related mediators, such as heat shock protein (HSP)-60, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, high mobility group box (HMGB)-1 and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)-4. Cardiomyocytes exposed to 25mM glucose resulted in the downregulation of HSP60 and SIRT1 after 48 h. We further examined that hyperglycemia mediated the decrease in the gap junction protein CX43, as well as CXC chemokine receptor CXCR4 which may affect the physiological functions of the cardiomyocytes when exposed to high glucose for 24 and 48 h. Upregulated expression of DNA-binding nuclear protein HMGB1, along with changes in histone methylation marker H3K9me1 have demonstrated hyperglycemia-induced damage to cardiomyocyte at 24 h of exposure. Our study established that 24 to 48 h of hyperglycemic exposure could stimulate stress-mediated inflammatory mediators in cardiomyocytes in vitro. These stress-related changes in hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocytes may further initiate an increase in injury markers which eventually could alter the epigenetic processes. Therefore, epigenetic and inflammatory mechanisms in conjunction with alterations in a downstream signaling pathway could have a direct effect on the functionality of the cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose during short and long-term exposures. 
    more » « less
  5. Chromatin, a dynamic protein-DNA complex that regulates eukaryotic genome accessibility and essential functions, is composed of nucleosomes connected by linker DNA with each nucleosome consisting of DNA wrapped around an octamer of histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Magic angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can yield unique insights into histone structure and dynamics in condensed nucleosomes and nucleosome arrays representative of chromatin at physiological concentrations. Recently we used J-coupling-based solid-state NMR methods to investigate with residue-specific resolution the conformational dynamics of histone H3 N-terminal tails in 16-mer nucleosome arrays containing 15, 30 or 60 bp DNA linkers. Here, we probe the H3 core domain in the 16-mer arrays as a function of DNA linker lengthviadipolar coupling-based1H-detected solid-state NMR techniques. Specifically, we established nearly complete assignments of backbone chemical shifts for H3 core residues in arrays with 15–60 bp DNA linkers reconstituted with2H,13C,15N-labeled H3. Overall, these chemical shifts were similar irrespective of the DNA linker length indicating no major changes in H3 core conformation. Notably, however, multiple residues at the H3-nucleosomal DNA interface in arrays with 15 bp DNA linkers exhibited relatively pronounced differences in chemical shifts and line broadening compared to arrays with 30 and 60 bp linkers. These findings are consistent with increased heterogeneity in nucleosome packing and structural strain within arrays containing short DNA linkers that likely leads to side-chains of these interfacial residues experiencing alternate conformations or shifts in their rotamer populations relative to arrays with the longer DNA linkers.

     
    more » « less