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Title: The Multifunctional Long-Distance Movement Protein of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus 2 Protects Viral and Host Transcripts from Nonsense-Mediated Decay
ABSTRACT The nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway presents a challenge for RNA viruses with termination codons that precede extended 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). The umbravirus Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2) is a nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA virus with an unusually long 3′ UTR that is susceptible to NMD. To establish a systemic infection, the PEMV2 long-distance movement protein p26 was previously shown to both stabilize viral RNAs and bind them for transport through the plant’s vascular system. The current study demonstrated that p26 protects both viral and nonviral messenger RNAs from NMD. Although p26 localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleolus, p26 exerts its anti-NMD effects exclusively in the cytoplasm independently of long-distance movement. Using a transcriptome-wide approach in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana , p26 protected a subset of cellular NMD target transcripts, particularly those containing long, structured, GC-rich 3′ UTRs. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the NMD pathway is highly dysfunctional during PEMV2 infection, with 1,820 (48%) of NMD targets increasing in abundance. Widespread changes in the host transcriptome are common during plant RNA virus infections, and these results suggest that, in at least some instances, virus-mediated NMD inhibition may be a major contributing factor. IMPORTANCE Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) represents an RNA regulatory pathway that degrades both natural and faulty messenger RNAs with long 3′ untranslated regions. NMD targets diverse families of RNA viruses, requiring that viruses counteract the NMD pathway for successful amplification in host cells. A protein required for long-distance movement of Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2) is shown to also protect both viral and host mRNAs from NMD. RNA-seq analyses of the Nicotiana benthamiana transcriptome revealed that PEMV2 infection significantly impairs the host NMD pathway. RNA viruses routinely induce large-scale changes in host gene expression, and, like PEMV2, may use NMD inhibition to alter the host transcriptome in an effort to increase virus amplification.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1818229
NSF-PAR ID:
10407003
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Editor(s):
Palese, Peter
Date Published:
Journal Name:
mBio
Volume:
11
Issue:
2
ISSN:
2161-2129
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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