skip to main content

Title: Cellulose synthase-like D movement in the plasma membrane requires enzymatic activity

Cellulose Synthase-Like D (CSLD) proteins, important for tip growth and cell division, are known to generate β-1,4-glucan. However, whether they are propelled in the membrane as the glucan chains they produce assemble into microfibrils is unknown. To address this, we endogenously tagged all eight CSLDs in Physcomitrium patens and discovered that they all localize to the apex of tip-growing cells and to the cell plate during cytokinesis. Actin is required to target CSLD to cell tips concomitant with cell expansion, but not to cell plates, which depend on actin and CSLD for structural support. Like Cellulose Synthase (CESA), CSLD requires catalytic activity to move in the plasma membrane. We discovered that CSLD moves significantly faster, with shorter duration and less linear trajectories than CESA. In contrast to CESA, CSLD movement was insensitive to the cellulose synthesis inhibitor isoxaben, suggesting that CSLD and CESA function within different complexes possibly producing structurally distinct cellulose microfibrils.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1083
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Cell Biology
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. In plants, changes in cell size and shape during development fundamentally depend on the ability to synthesize and modify cell wall polysaccharides. The main classes of cell wall polysaccharides produced by terrestrial plants are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins. Members of the cellulose synthase (CESA) and cellulose synthase-like (CSL) families encode glycosyltransferases that synthesize the β-1,4-linked glycan backbones of cellulose and most hemicellulosic polysaccharides that comprise plant cell walls. Cellulose microfibrils are the major load-bearing component in plant cell walls and are assembled from individual β-1,4-glucan polymers synthesized by CESA proteins that are organized into multimeric complexes called CESA complexes, in the plant plasma membrane. During distinct modes of polarized cell wall deposition, such as in the tip growth that occurs during the formation of root hairs and pollen tubes or de novo formation of cell plates during plant cytokinesis, newly synthesized cell wall polysaccharides are deposited in a restricted region of the cell. These processes require the activity of members of the CESA-like D subfamily. However, while these CSLD polysaccharide synthases are essential, the nature of the polysaccharides they synthesize has remained elusive. Here, we use a combination of genetic rescue experiments with CSLD-CESA chimeric proteins, in vitro biochemical reconstitution, and supporting computational modeling and simulation, to demonstrate that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CSLD3 is a UDP-glucose-dependent β-1,4-glucan synthase that forms protein complexes displaying similar ultrastructural features to those formed by CESA6. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract The common ancestor of seed plants and mosses contained homo-oligomeric cellulose synthesis complexes (CSCs) composed of identical subunits encoded by a single CELLULOSE SYNTHASE (CESA) gene. Seed plants use different CESA isoforms for primary and secondary cell wall deposition. Both primary and secondary CESAs form hetero-oligomeric CSCs that assemble and function in planta only when all the required isoforms are present. The moss Physcomitrium (Physcomitrella) patens has seven CESA genes that can be grouped into two functionally and phylogenetically distinct classes. Previously, we showed that PpCESA3 and/or PpCESA8 (class A) together with PpCESA6 and/or PpCESA7 (class B) form obligate hetero-oligomeric complexes required for normal secondary cell wall deposition. Here, we show that gametophore morphogenesis requires a member of class A, PpCESA5, and is sustained in the absence of other PpCESA isoforms. PpCESA5 also differs from the other class A PpCESAs as it is able to self-interact and does not co-immunoprecipitate with other PpCESA isoforms. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that homo-oligomeric CSCs containing only PpCESA5 subunits synthesize cellulose required for gametophore morphogenesis. Analysis of mutant phenotypes also revealed that, like secondary cell wall deposition, normal protonemal tip growth requires class B isoforms (PpCESA4 or PpCESA10), along with a class A partner (PpCESA3, PpCESA5, or PpCESA8). Thus, P. patens contains both homo-oligomeric and hetero-oligomeric CSCs. 
    more » « less

    Endosidin20 (ES20) is a recently identified cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI) that targets the catalytic site of plant cellulose synthase (CESA). Here, we screened over 600 ES20 analogs and identified nine active analogs named ES20‐1 to ES20‐9. Among these, endosidin20‐1 (ES20‐1) had stronger inhibitory effects on plant growth and cellulose biosynthesis than ES20. At the biochemical level, we demonstrated that ES20‐1, like ES20, directly interacts with CESA6. At the cellular level, this molecule, like ES20, induced the accumulation of cellulose synthase complexes at the Golgi apparatus and inhibited their secretion to the plasma membrane. Like ES20, ES20‐1 likely targets the catalytic site of CESA. However, through molecular docking analysis using a modeled structure of full‐length CESA6, we found that both ES20 and ES20‐1 might have another target site at the transmembrane regions of CESA6. Besides ES20, other CBIs such as isoxaben, C17, and flupoxam are widely used tools to dissect the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis and are also valuable resources for the development of herbicides. Here, based on mutant genetic analysis and molecular docking analysis, we have identified the potential target sites of these CBIs on a modeled CESA structure. Some bacteria also produce cellulose, and both ES20 and ES20‐1 inhibited bacterial cellulose biosynthesis. Therefore, we conclude that ES20‐1 is a more potent analog of ES20 that inhibits intrinsic cellulose biosynthesis in plants, and both ES20 and ES20‐1 show an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth and cellulose synthesis, making them excellent tools for exploring the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis across kingdoms.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Cellulose, the main component of the plant cell wall, is synthesized by the multimeric cellulose synthase (CESA) complex (CSC). In plant cells, CSCs are assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi and transported through the endomembrane system to the plasma membrane (PM). However, how CESA catalytic activity or conserved motifs around the catalytic core influence vesicle trafficking or protein dynamics is not well understood. Here, we used yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged AtCESA6 and created 18 mutants in key motifs of the catalytic domain to analyze how they affected seedling growth, cellulose biosynthesis, complex formation, and CSC dynamics and trafficking in Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedling growth and cellulose content were reduced by nearly all mutations. Moreover, mutations in most conserved motifs slowed CSC movement in the PM as well as delivery of CSCs to the PM. Interestingly, mutations in the DDG and QXXRW motifs affected YFP-CESA6 abundance in the Golgi. These mutations also perturbed post-Golgi trafficking of CSCs. The 18 mutations were divided into 2 groups based on their phenotypes; we propose that Group I mutations cause CSC trafficking defects, whereas Group II mutations, especially in the QXXRW motif, affect protein folding and/or CSC rosette formation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the CESA6 catalytic domain is essential for cellulose biosynthesis as well as CSC formation, protein folding and dynamics, and vesicle trafficking.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract Here, we present a study into the mechanisms of primary cell wall cellulose formation in grasses, using the model cereal grass Brachypodium distachyon. The exon found adjacent to the BdCESA1 glycosyltransferase QXXRW motif was targeted using Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) and sequencing candidate amplicons in multiple parallel reactions (SCAMPRing) leading to the identification of the Bdcesa1S830N allele. Plants carrying this missense mutation exhibited a significant reduction in crystalline cellulose content in tissues that rely on the primary cell wall for biomechanical support. However, Bdcesa1S830N plants failed to exhibit the predicted reduction in plant height. In a mechanism unavailable to eudicotyledons, B. distachyon plants homozygous for the Bdcesa1S830N allele appear to overcome the loss of internode expansion anatomically by increasing the number of nodes along the stem. Stem biomechanics were resultantly compromised in Bdcesa1S830N. The Bdcesa1S830N missense mutation did not interfere with BdCESA1 gene expression. However, molecular dynamic simulations of the CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A (CESA) structure with modelled membrane interactions illustrated that Bdcesa1S830N exhibited structural changes in the translated gene product responsible for reduced cellulose biosynthesis. Molecular dynamic simulations showed that substituting S830N resulted in a stabilizing shift in the flexibility of the class specific region arm of the core catalytic domain of CESA, revealing the importance of this motion to protein function. 
    more » « less