Solid‐state lithium metal batteries with garnet‐type electrolyte provide several advantages over conventional lithium‐ion batteries, especially for safety and energy density. However, a few grand challenges such as the propagation of Li dendrites, poor interfacial contact between the solid electrolyte and the electrodes, and formation of lithium carbonate during ambient exposure over the solid‐state electrolyte prevent the viability of such batteries. Herein, an ultrathin sub‐nanometer porous carbon nanomembrane (CNM) is employed on the surface of solid‐state electrolyte (SSE) that increases the adhesion of SSE with electrodes, prevents lithium carbonate formation over the surface, regulates the flow of Li‐ions, and blocks any electronic leakage. The sub‐nanometer scale pores in CNM allow rapid permeation of Li‐ions across the electrode–electrolyte interface without the presence of any liquid medium. Additionally, CNM suppresses the propagation of Li dendrites by over sevenfold up to a current density of 0.7 mA cm−2and enables the cycling of all‐solid‐state batteries at low stack pressure of 2 MPa using LiFePO4cathode and Li metal anode. The CNM provides chemical stability to the solid electrolyte for over 4 weeks of ambient exposure with less than a 4% increase in surface impurities.
Solid-state electrolytes overcome many challenges of present-day lithium ion batteries, such as safety hazards and dendrite formation1,2. However, detailed understanding of the involved lithium dynamics is missing due to a lack of in operando measurements with chemical and interfacial specificity. Here we investigate a prototypical solid-state electrolyte using linear and nonlinear extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopies. Leveraging the surface sensitivity of extreme-ultraviolet-second-harmonic-generation spectroscopy, we obtained a direct spectral signature of surface lithium ions, showing a distinct blueshift relative to bulk absorption spectra. First-principles simulations attributed the shift to transitions from the lithium 1
- ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Nature Materials
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- p. 848-852
- Nature Publishing Group
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Regulating Li‐Ion Transport through Ultrathin Molecular Membrane to Enable High‐Performance All‐Solid‐State–Battery
Despite significant interest toward solid‐state electrolytes owing to their superior safety in comparison to liquid‐based electrolytes, sluggish ion diffusion and high interfacial resistance limit their application in durable and high‐power density batteries. Here, a novel quasi‐solid Li+ion conductive nanocomposite polymer electrolyte containing black phosphorous (BP) nanosheets is reported. The developed electrolyte is successfully cycled against Li metal (over 550 h cycling) at 1 mA cm−2at room temperature. The cycling overpotential is dropped by 75% in comparison to BP‐free polymer composite electrolyte indicating lower interfacial resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the coordination number of Li+ions around (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI−) pairs and ethylene‐oxide chains decreases at the Li metal/electrolyte interface, which facilitates the Li+transport through the polymer host. Density functional theory calculations confirm that the adsorption of the LiTFSI molecules at the BP surface leads to the weakening of N and Li atomic bonding and enhances the dissociation of Li+ions. This work offers a new potential mechanism to tune the bulk and interfacial ionic conductivity of solid‐state electrolytes that may lead to a new generation of lithium polymer batteries with high ionic conduction kinetics and stable long‐life cycling.
A thin solid electrolyte with a high Li+conductivity is used to separate the metallic lithium anode and the cathode in an all‐solid‐state Li‐metal battery. However, most solid Li‐ion electrolytes have a small electrochemical stability window, large interfacial resistance, and cannot block lithium‐dendrite growth when lithium is plated on charging of the cell. Mg2+stabilizes a rhombohedral NASICON‐structured solid electrolyte of the formula Li1.2Mg0.1Zr1.9(PO4)3(LMZP). This solid electrolyte has Li‐ion conductivity two orders of magnitude higher at 25 °C than that of the triclinic LiZr2(PO4)3.7Li and6Li NMR confirm the Li‐ions in two different crystallographic sites of the NASICON framework with 85% of the Li‐ions having a relatively higher mobility than the other 15%. The anode–electrolyte interface is further investigated with symmetric Li/LMZP/Li cell testing, while the cathode–electrolyte interface is explored with an all‐solid‐state Li/LMZP/LiFePO4cell. The enhanced performance of these cells enabled by the Li1.2Mg0.1Zr1.9(PO4)3solid electrolyte is stable upon repeated charge/discharge cycling.
Understanding the electrochemical deposition of metal anodes is critical for high-energy rechargeable batteries, among which solid-state lithium metal batteries have attracted extensive interest. A long-standing open question is how electrochemically deposited lithium-ions at the interfaces with the solid-electrolytes crystalize into lithium metal. Here, using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we study and reveal the atomistic pathways and energy barriers of lithium crystallization at the solid interfaces. In contrast to the conventional understanding, lithium crystallization takes multi-step pathways mediated by interfacial lithium atoms with disordered and random-closed-packed configurations as intermediate steps, which give rise to the energy barrier of crystallization. This understanding of multi-step crystallization pathways extends the applicability of Ostwald’s step rule to interfacial atom states, and enables a rational strategy for lower-barrier crystallization by promoting favorable interfacial atom states as intermediate steps through interfacial engineering. Our findings open rationally guided avenues of interfacial engineering for facilitating the crystallization in metal electrodes for solid-state batteries and can be generally applicable for fast crystal growth.
Understanding Electrochemical Reaction Mechanisms of Sulfur in All‐Solid‐State Batteries through Operando and Theoretical Studies **
Due to its outstanding safety and high energy density, all‐solid‐state lithium‐sulfur batteries (ASLSBs) are considered as a potential future energy storage technology. The electrochemical reaction pathway in ASLSBs with inorganic solid‐state electrolytes is different from Li‐S batteries with liquid electrolytes, but the mechanism remains unclear. By combining operando Raman spectroscopy and ex situ X‐ray absorption spectroscopy, we investigated the reaction mechanism of sulfur (S8) in ASLSBs. Our results revealed that no Li2S8,Li2S6,and Li2S4were formed, yet Li2S2was detected. Furthermore, first‐principles structural calculations were employed to disclose the formation energy of solid state Li2S
n(1≤ n≤8), in which Li2S2was a metastable phase, consistent with experimental observations. Meanwhile, partial S8and Li2S2remained at the full lithiation stage, suggesting incomplete reaction due to sluggish reaction kinetics in ASLSBs.