skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, May 17 until 8:00 AM ET on Saturday, May 18 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: Exceptional point based lattice gyroscopes

Ring laser gyroscopes (RLGs) based on non-Hermitian exceptional points (EPs) have garnered much recent interest due to their exceptional sensitivity. Such gyroscopes typically consist of two-ring laser resonators, one with loss and one with an equal amount of optical gain. The coupling strength between these ring resonators is a key parameter determining the sensitivity of EP-based RLGs. Here we explore how the exceptional sensitivity demonstrated in this coupled dimer may be further enhanced by adding more dimers in an array. Specifically, we propose two types of ring laser gyroscope lattice arrays, each composed ofNcoupled dimers arrayed serially or concentrically with periodic boundary conditions, that guide counter-propagating photons in a rotating frame. Using coupled mode theory, we show that these lattice gyroscopes exhibit an enhanced effective coupling rate between the gain and loss resonators at the EP, thereby producing greater sensitivity to the angular rotation rate than their constituent dimers. This work paves the way toward EP-based RLGs with the necessary sensitivity for GPS-free navigation.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
2231387 2012172
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Optical Society of America
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Optical Materials Express
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 1547
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Engineered non-Hermitian systems featuring exceptional points (EPs) can lead to a host of extraordinary phenomena in diverse fields ranging from photonics, acoustics, opto-mechanics, and electronics to atomic physics. In optics, non-Hermitian dynamics are typically realized using dissipation and phase-insensitive gain accompanied by unavoidable fluctuations. Here, we introduce non-Hermitian dynamics of coupled optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) arising from phase-sensitive amplification and de-amplification, and show their distinct advantages over conventional non-Hermitian systems relying on laser gain and loss. OPO-based non-Hermitian systems can benefit from the instantaneous nature of the parametric gain, noiseless phase-sensitive amplification, and rich quantum and classical nonlinear dynamics. We show that two coupled OPOs can exhibit spectral anti-parity-time (anti-PT) symmetry and a EP between its degenerate and nondegenerate operation regimes. To demonstrate the distinct potentials of the coupled OPO system compared to conventional non-Hermitian systems, we present higher-order EPs with two OPOs, tunable Floquet EPs in a reconfigurable dynamic non-Hermitian system, and the generation of a squeezed vacuum around EPs, all of which are not easy to realize in other non-Hermitian platforms. We believe our results show that coupled OPOs are an outstanding non-Hermitian setting with unprecedented opportunities to realize nonlinear dynamical systems for enhanced sensing and quantum information processing.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract In this work we demonstrate how one can improve the angular rate sensitivity of ring/disk resonating gyroscopes by tailoring their nonlinear behavior by systematic shaping of the gyroscope body and electrodes, and by the tuning of bias voltages on segmented electrodes. Of specific interest are the drive and sense mode Duffing nonlinearities, which limit their dynamic ranges, and the intermodal dispersive coupling between these modes that provides parametric amplification of the sense mode output signal. These two effects have the same physical origins and are in competition in terms of system performance, which naturally calls for optimization considerations. The present analysis is based on a systematic modeling of the nonlinear response of these devices by which we explore ways in which one can optimize the angular rate sensitivity by manipulating the mechanical and electrostatic contributions to the nonlinearities. In particular, non-uniform modifications of the gyroscope body thickness are employed to affect the mechanical contributions to these parameters, while the electrostatic components are manipulated via shaping of the resonator-electrode gap and by applying non-uniform bias voltages among segmented electrodes around the gyroscope body. These models predict that such relatively simple alterations can achieve improvements in gain by about an order of magnitude when compared to devices with uniform layouts. 
    more » « less
  3. In this paper, we explore the operation of a nonreciprocal non-Hermitian system consisting of a lossy magneto-optical ring resonator coupled to another ring resonator with gain and loss, and we demonstrate that such a system can exhibit non-reciprocity-based broken parity-time (PT) symmetry and supports one-way exceptional points. The nonreciprocal PT-phase transition is analyzed with the use of both analytical tools based on coupled-mode theory and two-dimensional finite element method simulations. Our calculations show that the response of the system strongly depends on the regime of operation – broken or preserved PT-symmetry. This response is leveraged to show that the system can operate as an optical isolator or a one-way laser with functionality tuned by adjusting loss/gain in the second ring resonator. The proposed system can thus be promising for device applications such as magnetically or even optically switchable non-reciprocal devices and one-way micro-ring lasers.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We introduce cascaded parity-time (PT)-symmetric artificial sheets (e.g. metasurfaces or frequency selective surfaces) that may exhibit multiple higher-order laser-absorber modes and bidirectional reflectionless transmission resonances within the PT-broken phase, as well as a unidirectional reflectionless transmission resonance associated with the exceptional point (EP). We derive the explicit expressions of the gain–loss parameter required for obtaining these modes and their intriguing physical properties. By exploiting the cascaded PT structures, the gain–loss threshold for the self-dual laser-absorber operation can be remarkably lowered, while the EP remains unaltered. We further study interferometric sensing based on such a multimodal laser-absorber and demonstrate that its sensitivity may be exceptionally high and proportional to the number of metasurfaces along the light propagation direction.

    more » « less
  5. We propose to use exceptional points (EPs) to construct diffraction-free beam propagation and localized power oscillation in lattices. We specifically consider two systems to utilize EPs for diffraction-free beam propagation, one in synthetic gauge lattices and the other in unidirectionally coupled resonators where each resonator individually is capable of creating orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams. In the second system, we introduce the concept of robust and tunable OAM beam propagation in discrete lattices. We show that one can create robust OAM beams in an arbitrary number of sites of a photonic lattice. Furthermore, we report power oscillation at the EP of a non-Hermitian lattice. Our research widens the study and application of EPs in different photonic systems including OAM beams and their associated dynamics in discrete lattices.

    more » « less