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Interfacial segregation and chemical short-range ordering influence the behavior of grain boundaries in complex concentrated alloys. In this study, we use atomistic modeling of a NbMoTaW refractory complex concentrated alloy to provide insight into the interplay between these two phenomena. Hybrid Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations are performed on columnar grain models to identify equilibrium grain boundary structures. Our results reveal extended near-boundary segregation zones that are much larger than traditional segregation regions, which also exhibit chemical patterning that bridges the interfacial and grain interior regions. Furthermore, structural transitions pertaining to an A2-to-B2 transformation are observed within these extended segregation zones. Both grain size and temperature are found to significantly alter the widths of these regions. An analysis of chemical short-range order indicates that not all pairwise elemental interactions are affected by the presence of a grain boundary equally, as only a subset of elemental clustering types are more likely to reside near certain boundaries. The results emphasize the increased chemical complexity that is associated with near-boundary segregation zones and demonstrate the unique nature of interfacial segregation in complex concentrated alloys.
INTRODUCTION Transposable elements (TEs), repeat expansions, and repeat-mediated structural rearrangements play key roles in chromosome structure and species evolution, contribute to human genetic variation, and substantially influence human health through copy number variants, structural variants, insertions, deletions, and alterations to gene transcription and splicing. Despite their formative role in genome stability, repetitive regions have been relegated to gaps and collapsed regions in human genome reference GRCh38 owing to the technological limitations during its development. The lack of linear sequence in these regions, particularly in centromeres, resulted in the inability to fully explore the repeat content of the human genome in the context of both local and regional chromosomal environments. RATIONALE Long-read sequencing supported the complete, telomere-to-telomere (T2T) assembly of the pseudo-haploid human cell line CHM13. This resource affords a genome-scale assessment of all human repetitive sequences, including TEs and previously unknown repeats and satellites, both within and outside of gaps and collapsed regions. Additionally, a complete genome enables the opportunity to explore the epigenetic and transcriptional profiles of these elements that are fundamental to our understanding of chromosome structure, function, and evolution. Comparative analyses reveal modes of repeat divergence, evolution, and expansion or contraction with locus-level resolution. RESULTS We implementedmore »
Multi-scale investigation of short-range order and dislocation glide in MoNbTi and TaNbTi multi-principal element alloysAbstract Refractory multi-principal element alloys (RMPEAs) are promising materials for high-temperature structural applications. Here, we investigate the role of short-range ordering (SRO) on dislocation glide in the MoNbTi and TaNbTi RMPEAs using a multi-scale modeling approach. Monte carlo/molecular dynamics simulations with a moment tensor potential show that MoNbTi exhibits a much greater degree of SRO than TaNbTi and the local composition has a direct effect on the unstable stacking fault energies (USFEs). From mesoscale phase-field dislocation dynamics simulations, we find that increasing SRO leads to higher mean USFEs and stress required for dislocation glide. The gliding dislocations experience significant hardening due to pinning and depinning caused by random compositional fluctuations, with higher SRO decreasing the degree of USFE dispersion and hence, amount of hardening. Finally, we show how the morphology of an expanding dislocation loop is affected by the applied stress.
Strengthening in multi-principal element alloys with local-chemical-order roughened dislocation pathways
High-entropy and medium-entropy alloys are presumed to have a configurational entropy as high as that of an ideally mixed solid solution (SS) of multiple elements in near-equal proportions. However, enthalpic interactions inevitably render such chemically disordered SSs rare and metastable, except at very high temperatures. Here we highlight the wide variety of local chemical ordering (LCO) that sets these concentrated SSs apart from traditional solvent-solute ones. Using atomistic simulations, we reveal that the LCO of the multi-principal-element NiCoCr SS changes with alloy processing conditions, producing a wide range of generalized planar fault energies. We show that the LCO heightens the ruggedness of the energy landscape and raises activation barriers governing dislocation activities. This influences the selection of dislocation pathways in slip, faulting, and twinning, and increases the lattice friction to dislocation motion via a nanoscale segment detrapping mechanism. In contrast, severe plastic deformation reduces the LCO towards random SS.
Intrinsic size effects in nanoglass plasticity have been connected to the structural length scales imposed by the interfacial network, and control over this behavior is critical to designing amorphous alloys with improved mechanical response. In this paper, atomistic simulations are employed to probe strain delocalization in nanoglasses with explicit correlation to the interfacial characteristics and length scales of the amorphous grain structure. We show that strength is independent of grain size under certain conditions, but scales with the excess free volume and degree of short-range ordering in the interfaces. Structural homogenization upon annealing of the nanoglasses increases their strength toward the value of the bulk metallic glass; however, continued partitioning of strain to the interfacial regions inhibits the formation of a primary shear band. Intrinsic size effects in nanoglass plasticity thus originate from biased plastic strain accumulation within the interfacial regions, which will ultimately govern strain delocalization and homogenous flow in nanoglasses.