skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2024

Title: Chromosome-length genome assembly of Teladorsagia circumcincta – a globally important helminth parasite in livestock
Abstract Background Gastrointestinal (GIT) helminthiasis is a global problem that affects livestock health, especially in small ruminants. One of the major helminth parasites of sheep and goats, Teladorsagia circumcincta , infects the abomasum and causes production losses, reductions in weight gain, diarrhoea and, in some cases, death in young animals. Control strategies have relied heavily on the use of anthelmintic medication but, unfortunately, T. circumcincta has developed resistance, as have many helminths. Vaccination offers a sustainable and practical solution, but there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent Teladorsagiosis. The discovery of new strategies for controlling T. circumcincta , such as novel vaccine targets and drug candidates, would be greatly accelerated by the availability of better quality, chromosome-length, genome assembly because it would allow the identification of key genetic determinants of the pathophysiology of infection and host-parasite interaction. The available draft genome assembly of T. circumcincta (GCA_002352805.1) is highly fragmented and thus impedes large-scale investigations of population and functional genomics. Results We have constructed a high-quality reference genome, with chromosome-length scaffolds, by purging alternative haplotypes from the existing draft genome assembly and scaffolding the result using chromosome conformation, capture-based, in situ Hi-C technique. The improved (Hi-C) assembly resulted in six chromosome-length scaffolds with length ranging from 66.6 Mbp to 49.6 Mbp, 35% fewer sequences and reduction in size. Substantial improvements were also achieved in both the values for N50 (57.1 Mbp) and L50 (5 Mbp). A higher and comparable level of genome and proteome completeness was achieved for Hi-C assembly on BUSCO parameters. The Hi-C assembly had a greater synteny and number of orthologs with a closely related nematode, Haemonchus contortus. Conclusion This improved genomic resource is suitable as a foundation for the identification of potential targets for vaccine and drug development.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2021795 2019745
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
BMC Genomics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    Legumes are of great interest for sustainable agricultural production as they fix atmospheric nitrogen to improve the soil. Medicago truncatula is a well-established model legume, and extensive studies in fundamental molecular, physiological, and developmental biology have been undertaken to translate into trait improvements in economically important legume crops worldwide. However, M. truncatula reference genome was generated in the accession Jemalong A17, which is highly recalcitrant to transformation. M. truncatula R108 is more attractive for genetic studies due to its high transformation efficiency and Tnt1-insertion population resource for functional genomics. The need to perform accurate synteny analysis and comprehensive genome-scale comparisons necessitates a chromosome-length genome assembly for M. truncatula cv. R108. Here, we performed in situ Hi-C (48×) to anchor, order, orient scaffolds, and correct misjoins of contigs in a previously published genome assembly (R108 v1.0), resulting in an improved genome assembly containing eight chromosome-length scaffolds that span 97.62% of the sequenced bases in the input assembly. The long-range physical information data generated using Hi-C allowed us to obtain a chromosome-length ordering of the genome assembly, better validate previous draft misjoins, and provide further insights accurately predicting synteny between A17 and R108 regions corresponding to the known chromosome 4/8 translocation. Furthermore, mapping the Tnt1 insertion landscape on this reference assembly presents an important resource for M. truncatula functional genomics by supporting efficient mutant gene identification in Tnt1 insertion lines. Our data provide a much-needed foundational resource that supports functional and molecular research into the Leguminosae for sustainable agriculture and feeding the future. 
    more » « less
  2. Oleksyk, Taras (Ed.)

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) narrowly avoided extinction to become an oft-cited example of the benefits of intensive management, research, and collaboration to save a species through ex situ conservation breeding and reintroduction into its former range. However, the species remains at risk due to possible inbreeding, disease susceptibility, and multiple fertility challenges. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of a male black-footed ferret generated through a combination of linked-read sequencing, optical mapping, and Hi-C proximity ligation. In addition, we report the karyotype for this species, which was used to anchor and assign chromosome numbers to the chromosome-length scaffolds. The draft assembly was ~2.5 Gb in length, with 95.6% of it anchored to 19 chromosome-length scaffolds, corresponding to the 2n = 38 chromosomes revealed by the karyotype. The assembly has contig and scaffold N50 values of 148.8 kbp and 145.4 Mbp, respectively, and is up to 96% complete based on BUSCO analyses. Annotation of the assembly, including evidence from RNA-seq data, identified 21,406 protein-coding genes and a repeat content of 37.35%. Phylogenomic analyses indicated that the black-footed ferret diverged from the European polecat/domestic ferret lineage 1.6 million yr ago. This assembly will enable research on the conservation genomics of black-footed ferrets and thereby aid in the further restoration of this endangered species.

    more » « less
  3. Sharakhov, Igor V. (Ed.)
    Rubus idaeus L. (red raspberry), is a perennial woody plant species of the Rosaceae family that is widely cultivated in the temperate regions of world and is thus an economically important soft fruit species. It is prized for its flavour and aroma, as well as a high content of healthful compounds such as vitamins and antioxidants. Breeding programs exist globally for red raspberry, but variety development is a long and challenging process. Genomic and molecular tools for red raspberry are valuable resources for breeding. Here, a chromosome-length genome sequence assembly and related gene predictions for the red raspberry cultivar ‘Anitra’ are presented, comprising PacBio long read sequencing scaffolded using Hi-C sequence data. The assembled genome sequence totalled 291.7 Mbp, with 247.5 Mbp (84.8%) incorporated into seven sequencing scaffolds with an average length of 35.4 Mbp. A total of 39,448 protein-coding genes were predicted, 75% of which were functionally annotated. The seven chromosome scaffolds were anchored to a previously published genetic linkage map with a high degree of synteny and comparisons to genomes of closely related species within the Rosoideae revealed chromosome-scale rearrangements that have occurred over relatively short evolutionary periods. A chromosome-level genomic sequence of R . idaeus will be a valuable resource for the knowledge of its genome structure and function in red raspberry and will be a useful and important resource for researchers and plant breeders. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    The Chinese hamster genome serves as a reference genome for the study of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the preferred host system for biopharmaceutical production. Recent re‐sequencing of the Chinese hamster genome resulted in the RefSeq PICR meta‐assembly, a set of highly accurate scaffolds that filled over 95% of the gaps in previous assembly versions. However, these scaffolds did not reach chromosome‐scale due to the absence of long‐range scaffolding information during the meta‐assembly process. Here, long‐range scaffolding of the PICR Chinese hamster genome assembly was performed using high‐throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi‐C). This process resulted in a new “PICRH” genome, where 97% of the genome is contained in 11 mega‐scaffolds corresponding to the Chinese hamster chromosomes (2n = 22) and the total number of scaffolds is reduced by three‐fold from 1,830 scaffolds in PICR to 647 in PICRH. Continuity was improved while preserving accuracy, leading to quality scores higher than recent builds of mouse chromosomes and comparable to human chromosomes. The PICRH genome assembly will be an indispensable tool for designing advanced genetic engineering strategies in CHO cells and enabling systematic examination of genomic and epigenomic instability through comparative analysis of CHO cell lines on a common set of chromosomal coordinates.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract Hares (genus Lepus) provide clear examples of repeated and often massive introgressive hybridization and striking local adaptations. Genomic studies on this group have so far relied on comparisons to the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) reference genome. Here, we report the first de novo draft reference genome for a hare species, the mountain hare (Lepus timidus), and evaluate the efficacy of whole-genome re-sequencing analyses using the new reference versus using the rabbit reference genome. The genome was assembled using the ALLPATHS-LG protocol with a combination of overlapping pair and mate-pair Illumina sequencing (77x coverage). The assembly contained 32,294 scaffolds with a total length of 2.7 Gb and a scaffold N50 of 3.4 Mb. Re-scaffolding based on the rabbit reference reduced the total number of scaffolds to 4,205 with a scaffold N50 of 194 Mb. A correspondence was found between 22 of these hare scaffolds and the rabbit chromosomes, based on gene content and direct alignment. We annotated 24,578 protein coding genes by combining ab-initio predictions, homology search, and transcriptome data, of which 683 were solely derived from hare-specific transcriptome data. The hare reference genome is therefore a new resource to discover and investigate hare-specific variation. Similar estimates of heterozygosity and inferred demographic history profiles were obtained when mapping hare whole-genome re-sequencing data to the new hare draft genome or to alternative references based on the rabbit genome. Our results validate previous reference-based strategies and suggest that the chromosome-scale hare draft genome should enable chromosome-wide analyses and genome scans on hares. 
    more » « less