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Title: Covalently integrated silica nanoparticles in poly(ethylene glycol)-based acrylate resins: thermomechanical, swelling, and morphological behavior
Nanocomposites integrate functional nanofillers into viscoelastic matrices for electronics, lightweight structural materials, and tissue engineering. Herein, the effect of methacrylate-functionalized (MA-SiO 2 ) and vinyl-functionalized (V-SiO 2 ) silica nanoparticles on the thermal, mechanical, physical, and morphological characteristics of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanocomposites was investigated. The gel fraction of V-SiO 2 composites decreases upon addition of 3.8 wt% but increases with further addition (>7.4 wt%) until it reaches a plateau at 10.7 wt%. The MA-SiO 2 induced no significant changes in gel fraction and both V-SiO 2 and MA-SiO 2 nanoparticles had a negligible impact on the nanocomposite glass transition temperature and water absorption. The Young's modulus and ultimate compressive stress increased with increasing nanoparticle concentration for both nanoparticles. Due to the higher crosslink density, MA-SiO 2 composites reached a maximum mechanical stress at a concentration of 7.4 wt%, while V-SiO 2 composites reached a maximum at a concentration of 10.7 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering revealed a bimodal size distribution for V-SiO 2 and a monomodal size distribution for MA-SiO 2 . Although aggregates were observed for both nanoparticle surface treatments, V-SiO 2 dispersion was poor while MA-SiO 2 were generally well-dispersed. These more » findings lay the framework for silica nanofillers in PEG-based nanocomposites for advanced manufacturing applications. « less
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Award ID(s):
1848454 1836719
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Soft Matter
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1019 to 1033
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. 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