skip to main content

Title: Description of a new species of Protodinychus (Mesostigmata: Protodinychidae), and a key to deutonymphs of the genus
A new species of Protodinychus Evans from Iran is described for the deutonymph, with supplementary information for P. ainscoughi Huțu and Călugăr. A key to the deutonymphs of Protodinychus is provided. Species diversity in the basal uropodine family Protodinychidae (Thinozercionoidea) may be larger than previously estimated.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Page Range / eLocation ID:
585 to 596
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Scrapter is a genus of colletid bees with a primary distribution centered in Southern Africa. The genus currently comprises 68 recognized species, which are divided into nine species groups, ranging from one to 29 included species. The Scrapter heterodoxus group is presently considered to be the only monotypic group, because of synonymization of Scrapter heterodoxus with Scrapter peringueyi in a previous revision of the genus. A comparative examination of these two species using both morphological assessment and molecular sequence data from the COI barcode region supported the recognition of S. peringueyi as a valid species, which we accordingly resurrect as the second species of the Scrapter heterodoxus species group. We provide high resolution images of the type specimens for both species and updated diagnoses to enable their separation from all other species of Scrapter . 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    The effect of species loss on ecosystem productivity is determined by both the functional contribution of the species lost, and the response of the remaining species in the community. According to the mass ratio hypothesis, the loss of a dominant plant species, which has a larger proportionate contribution to productivity, is expected to exert an overwhelming effect on this important ecosystem function. However, via competitive release, loss of a dominant species can provide the opportunity for other plant species to establish, thrive and become abundant in the community, potentially compensating for the function lost. Furthermore, if resource limitation is removed, then the compensatory response of function to the loss of a dominant species should be greater and more rapid than if resources are more limiting.

    To evaluate how resources may limit compensation of above‐ground productivity to the loss of a dominant plant species, we experimentally removed the C4perennial tallgrass,Andropogon gerardii, from intact plant communities. We added water for 4 years, as well as nitrogen in the fourth year, to test the effect of resource limitation on the compensatory response.

    Overall, above‐ground biomass production increased in the remaining community with both water and nitrogen addition. However, this increase in biomass production was not sufficient to fully compensate for the loss ofA. gerardii, indicating water and nitrogen were not limiting short‐term compensation in this community.

    Following the removal of the dominant species, there was reordering of species abundances in the community, rather than changes in species richness. The C4grassBouteloua curtipendulawas the most responsive species, increasing by 57.9% in abundance with water addition and 91.0% with both water and nitrogen addition. Despite this dramatic increase in abundance, its short stature and lower per capita biomass production prevented this species from compensating for the loss ofA. gerardii.

    Synthesis. Short‐term compensation after the loss of a dominant plant species can be hastened by increased resource availability, but ultimately full compensation appears to be limited by the presence and abundance of species in the remaining community that possess traits that allow them compensate for the species lost.

    more » « less
  3. Research over the last decade has revealed the importance of the cutaneous microbiome for the health and immune function of amphibians. Thousands of Bacteria and Archaeans species living in and on the skin are able to outcompete pathogenic species of fungus or types of viruses. The relationship between microbes and their host is so intimate that the term "metaorganism" has been used to describe this phenomenon. We are, however, at the early stages of understanding what determines the composition of the cutaneous microbiome and the relative effects of factors like genetics and habitat use. Could it be that there is a species-specific “microbiome fingerprint” that is consistent across different sites? Do species inhabiting similar microhabitats host similar microbes? We have replicated a similar study performed in Sosbee Cove in Union County, with a site in Cherokee County, with multiple species that are comparable across the two sites. We present our project designed to answer these questions and report preliminary results. 
    more » « less
  4. The Peruvian genera of Edrotini (Pimeliinae) are revised. A new genus Pachacamacius Flores & Giraldo gen. nov. with two new species, Pachacamacius aguilari Giraldo & Flores sp. nov. (type species) and Pachacamacius koepckeae Flores & Giraldo sp. nov., is described. Two species originally described in the genus ProhylithusKaszab, 1964 are reassigned to two new monotypic genera: Sechuranus Flores and Giraldo gen. nov. (type species Prohylithus barbatusKaszab, 1964) and Koneus Giraldo and Flores, gen. nov. (type species Prohylithus peruanusKaszab, 1981). This article includes diagnoses for five genera and redescriptions or descriptions, distributional data, habitat records and habitus photographs for six species. A dichotomous key for all 11 Peruvian species of Edrotini, drawings of new species' male genitalic features, and distribution maps are also provided. A discussion of the external morphological characters and male genitalia of the new taxa compared to the genera and species previously described and on endemicity and zoogeography of Peruvian Edrotini is presented. 
    more » « less
  5. Phylogenomic investigations of biodiversity facilitate the detection of fine-scale population genetic structure and the demographic histories of species and populations. However, determining whether or not the genetic divergence measured among populations reflects species-level differentiation remains a central challenge in species delimitation. One potential solution is to compare genetic divergence between putative new species with other closely related species, sometimes referred to as a reference-based taxonomy. To be described as a new species, a population should be at least as divergent as other species. Here, we develop a reference-based taxonomy for Horned Lizards ( Phrynosoma ; 17 species) using phylogenomic data (ddRADseq data) to provide a framework for delimiting species in the Greater Short-horned Lizard species complex ( P. hernandesi ). Previous species delimitation studies of this species complex have produced conflicting results, with morphological data suggesting that P. hernandesi consists of five species, whereas mitochondrial DNA support anywhere from 1 to 10 + species. To help address this conflict, we first estimated a time-calibrated species tree for P. hernandesi and close relatives using SNP data. These results support the paraphyly of P. hernandesi; we recommend the recognition of two species to promote a taxonomy that is consistent with species monophyly. There is strong evidence for three populations within P. hernandesi , and demographic modeling and admixture analyses suggest that these populations are not reproductively isolated, which is consistent with previous morphological analyses that suggest hybridization could be common. Finally, we characterize the population-species boundary by quantifying levels of genetic divergence for all 18 Phrynosoma species. Genetic divergence measures for western and southern populations of P. hernandesi failed to exceed those of other Phrynosoma species, but the relatively small population size estimated for the northern population causes it to appear as a relatively divergent species. These comparisons underscore the difficulties associated with putting a reference-based approach to species delimitation into practice. Nevertheless, the reference-based approach offers a promising framework for the consistent assessment of biodiversity within clades of organisms with similar life histories and ecological traits. 
    more » « less