skip to main content

Title: Achieving near-perfect light absorption in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides through band nesting

Near-perfect light absorbers (NPLAs), with absorbance,$${{{{{{{\mathcal{A}}}}}}}}$$A, of at least 99%, have a wide range of applications ranging from energy and sensing devices to stealth technologies and secure communications. Previous work on NPLAs has mainly relied upon plasmonic structures or patterned metasurfaces, which require complex nanolithography, limiting their practical applications, particularly for large-area platforms. Here, we use the exceptional band nesting effect in TMDs, combined with a Salisbury screen geometry, to demonstrate NPLAs using only two or three uniform atomic layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). The key innovation in our design, verified using theoretical calculations, is to stack monolayer TMDs in such a way as to minimize their interlayer coupling, thus preserving their strong band nesting properties. We experimentally demonstrate two feasible routes to controlling the interlayer coupling: twisted TMD bi-layers and TMD/buffer layer/TMD tri-layer heterostructures. Using these approaches, we demonstrate room-temperature values of$${{{{{{{\mathcal{A}}}}}}}}$$A=95% atλ=2.8 eV with theoretically predicted values as high as 99%. Moreover, the chemical variety of TMDs allows us to design NPLAs covering the entire visible range, paving the way for efficient atomically-thin optoelectronics.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
1921629 1921818
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Nature Publishing Group
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The valley Zeeman physics of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides provides valuable insight into the spin and orbital degrees of freedom inherent to these materials. Being atomically-thin materials, these degrees of freedom can be influenced by the presence of adjacent layers, due to proximity interactions that arise from wave function overlap across the 2D interface. Here, we report 60 T magnetoreflection spectroscopy of the A- and B- excitons in monolayer WS2, systematically encapsulated in monolayer graphene. While the observed variations of the valley Zeeman effect for the A- exciton are qualitatively in accord with expectations from the bandgap reduction and modification of the exciton binding energy due to the graphene-induced dielectric screening, the valley Zeeman effect for the B- exciton behaves markedly different. We investigate prototypical WS2/graphene stacks employing first-principles calculations and find that the lower conduction band of WS2at theK/Kvalleys (theCBband) is strongly influenced by the graphene layer on the orbital level. Specifically, our detailed microscopic analysis reveals that the conduction band at theQpoint of WS2mediates the coupling betweenCBand graphene due to resonant energy conditions and strong coupling to the Dirac cone. This leads to variations in the valley Zeeman physics of the B- exciton, consistent with the experimental observations. Our results therefore expand the consequences of proximity effects in multilayer semiconductor stacks, showing that wave function hybridization can be a multi-step energetically resonant process, with different bands mediating the interlayer interactions. Such effects can be further exploited to resonantly engineer the spin-valley degrees of freedom in van der Waals and moiré heterostructures.

    more » « less
  2. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    Three searches are presented for signatures of physics beyond the standard model (SM) inττfinal states in proton-proton collisions at the LHC, using a data sample collected with the CMS detector at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb1. Upper limits at 95% confidence level (CL) are set on the products of the branching fraction for the decay intoτleptons and the cross sections for the production of a new bosonϕ, in addition to the H(125) boson, via gluon fusion (ggϕ) or in association with b quarks, ranging from$$ \mathcal{O} $$O(10 pb) for a mass of 60 GeV to 0.3 fb for a mass of 3.5 TeV each. The data reveal two excesses for ggϕproduction with localp-values equivalent to about three standard deviations atmϕ= 0.1 and 1.2 TeV. In a search fort-channel exchange of a vector leptoquark U1, 95% CL upper limits are set on the dimensionless U1leptoquark coupling to quarks andτleptons ranging from 1 for a mass of 1 TeV to 6 for a mass of 5 TeV, depending on the scenario. In the interpretations of the$$ {M}_{\textrm{h}}^{125} $$Mh125and$$ {M}_{\textrm{h},\textrm{EFT}}^{125} $$Mh,EFT125minimal supersymmetric SM benchmark scenarios, additional Higgs bosons with masses below 350 GeV are excluded at 95% CL.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The quantum simulation of quantum chemistry is a promising application of quantum computers. However, forNmolecular orbitals, the$${\mathcal{O}}({N}^{4})$$O(N4)gate complexity of performing Hamiltonian and unitary Coupled Cluster Trotter steps makes simulation based on such primitives challenging. We substantially reduce the gate complexity of such primitives through a two-step low-rank factorization of the Hamiltonian and cluster operator, accompanied by truncation of small terms. Using truncations that incur errors below chemical accuracy allow one to perform Trotter steps of the arbitrary basis electronic structure Hamiltonian with$${\mathcal{O}}({N}^{3})$$O(N3)gate complexity in small simulations, which reduces to$${\mathcal{O}}({N}^{2})$$O(N2)gate complexity in the asymptotic regime; and unitary Coupled Cluster Trotter steps with$${\mathcal{O}}({N}^{3})$$O(N3)gate complexity as a function of increasing basis size for a given molecule. In the case of the Hamiltonian Trotter step, these circuits have$${\mathcal{O}}({N}^{2})$$O(N2)depth on a linearly connected array, an improvement over the$${\mathcal{O}}({N}^{3})$$O(N3)scaling assuming no truncation. As a practical example, we show that a chemically accurate Hamiltonian Trotter step for a 50 qubit molecular simulation can be carried out in the molecular orbital basis with as few as 4000 layers of parallel nearest-neighbor two-qubit gates, consisting of fewer than 105non-Clifford rotations. We also apply our algorithm to iron–sulfur clusters relevant for elucidating the mode of action of metalloenzymes.

    more » « less
  4. Strongly-interacting nanomagnetic arrays are ideal systems for exploring reconfigurable magnonics. They provide huge microstate spaces and integrated solutions for storage and neuromorphic computing alongside GHz functionality. These systems may be broadly assessed by their range of reliably accessible states and the strength of magnon coupling phenomena and nonlinearities. Increasingly, nanomagnetic systems are expanding into three-dimensional architectures. This has enhanced the range of available magnetic microstates and functional behaviours, but engineering control over 3D states and dynamics remains challenging. Here, we introduce a 3D magnonic metamaterial composed from multilayered artificial spin ice nanoarrays. Comprising two magnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic spacer, each nanoisland may assume four macrospin or vortex states per magnetic layer. This creates a system with a rich 16Nmicrostate space and intense static and dynamic dipolar magnetic coupling. The system exhibits a broad range of emergent phenomena driven by the strong inter-layer dipolar interaction, including ultrastrong magnon-magnon coupling with normalised coupling rates of$$\frac{\Delta f}{\nu }=0.57$$Δfν=0.57, GHz mode shifts in zero applied field and chirality-control of magnetic vortex microstates with corresponding magnonic spectra. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    As the use of spectral/hpelement methods, and high-order finite element methods in general, continues to spread, community efforts to create efficient, optimized algorithms associated with fundamental high-order operations have grown. Core tasks such as solution expansion evaluation at quadrature points, stiffness and mass matrix generation, and matrix assembly have received tremendous attention. With the expansion of the types of problems to which high-order methods are applied, and correspondingly the growth in types of numerical tasks accomplished through high-order methods, the number and types of these core operations broaden. This work focuses on solution expansion evaluation at arbitrary points within an element. This operation is core to many postprocessing applications such as evaluation of streamlines and pathlines, as well as to field projection techniques such as mortaring. We expand barycentric interpolation techniques developed on an interval to 2D (triangles and quadrilaterals) and 3D (tetrahedra, prisms, pyramids, and hexahedra) spectral/hpelement methods. We provide efficient algorithms for their implementations, and demonstrate their effectiveness using the spectral/hpelement libraryNektar++by running a series of baseline evaluations against the ‘standard’ Lagrangian method, where an interpolation matrix is generated and matrix-multiplication applied to evaluate a point at a given location. We present results from a rigorous series of benchmarking tests for a variety of element shapes, polynomial orders and dimensions. We show that when the point of interest is to be repeatedly evaluated, the barycentric method performs at worst$$50\%$$50%slower, when compared to a cached matrix evaluation. However, when the point of interest changes repeatedly so that the interpolation matrix must be regenerated in the ‘standard’ approach, the barycentric method yields far greater performance, with a minimum speedup factor of$$7\times $$7×. Furthermore, when derivatives of the solution evaluation are also required, the barycentric method in general slightly outperforms the cached interpolation matrix method across all elements and orders, with an up to$$30\%$$30%speedup. Finally we investigate a real-world example of scalar transport using a non-conformal discontinuous Galerkin simulation, in which we observe around$$6\times $$6×speedup in computational time for the barycentric method compared to the matrix-based approach. We also explore the complexity of both interpolation methods and show that the barycentric interpolation method requires$${\mathcal {O}}(k)$$O(k)storage compared to a best case space complexity of$${\mathcal {O}}(k^2)$$O(k2)for the Lagrangian interpolation matrix method.

    more » « less