skip to main content


Title: Twisted Diindeno‐Fused Dibenzo[ a , h ]anthracene Derivatives and their Dianions
Abstract

We report a facile synthesis of diindeno‐fused dibenzo[a,h]anthracene derivatives (DIDBA‐2Cl,DIDBA‐2Ph, andDIDBA‐2H)with different degrees of non‐planarity using three substituents (chloro, phenyl, and hydrogen) of various sizes. The planarization of their cores, as evidenced by the decreased end‐to‐end torsional angles, was confirmed by X‐ray crystallography. Their enhanced energy gaps with twisting were investigated by a combination of spectroscopic and electrochemical methods with density functional theory, which showed a transition from singlet open‐shell to closed‐shell configuration. Moreover, their doubly reduced states,DIDBA‐2Ph2−andDIDBA‐2H2−, were achieved by chemical reduction. The structures of dianions were identified by X‐ray crystallographic analysis, which elucidated that the electron charging further distorted the backbones. The electronic structure of the dianions was demonstrated by experimental and theoretical approaches, suggesting decreased energy gaps with larger non‐planarity, different from the neutral species.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2003411 1834750
NSF-PAR ID:
10431948
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Volume:
62
Issue:
34
ISSN:
1433-7851
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We report a facile synthesis of diindeno‐fused dibenzo[a,h]anthracene derivatives (DIDBA‐2Cl,DIDBA‐2Ph, andDIDBA‐2H)with different degrees of non‐planarity using three substituents (chloro, phenyl, and hydrogen) of various sizes. The planarization of their cores, as evidenced by the decreased end‐to‐end torsional angles, was confirmed by X‐ray crystallography. Their enhanced energy gaps with twisting were investigated by a combination of spectroscopic and electrochemical methods with density functional theory, which showed a transition from singlet open‐shell to closed‐shell configuration. Moreover, their doubly reduced states,DIDBA‐2Ph2−andDIDBA‐2H2−, were achieved by chemical reduction. The structures of dianions were identified by X‐ray crystallographic analysis, which elucidated that the electron charging further distorted the backbones. The electronic structure of the dianions was demonstrated by experimental and theoretical approaches, suggesting decreased energy gaps with larger non‐planarity, different from the neutral species.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    A series ofmeso‐substituted with aromatic (=tolyl, pyrenyl, fluorenyl, naphthyl, and triphenylamine) substituents, platinum (Pt), and palladium (Pd) porphyrins have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction studies to probe structure‐reactivity aspects on the electrochemical redox potentials, and phosphorescence quantum yields and lifetimes. In the X‐ray structures, the aromaticmeso‐substituents were rotated to some extent from the planarity of the porphyrin ring to minimize steric hindrance. Both Pt and Pd porphyrins revealed higher electrochemical redox gaps as compared to their free‐base porphyrin analogs as a result of the harder oxidation and reduction processes. The ability of both Pt and Pd porphyrins to generate singlet oxygen was probed by monitoring the photoluminescence of1O2at 1270 nm. Higher quantum yields for both triplet sensitizers compared to their free‐base analogs were witnessed. Singlet oxygen quantum yields close to unity were possible to achieve in the case of Pt and Pd porphyrins bearing triphenylamine substituents at themeso‐position. The present study brings out the importance of differentmeso‐substituents on the triplet porphyrin sensitizers in governing singlet oxygen quantum yields; a key property of photosensitizers needed for photodynamic therapy, chemical synthesis, and other pertinent applications.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Mono‐ and dianions of 2‐tert‐butyl‐3a2‐azapentabenzo[bc,ef,hi,kl,no]corannulene (1 a) were synthesized by chemical reduction with sodium and cesium metals, and crystallized as the corresponding salts in the presence of 18‐crown‐6 ether. X‐ray diffraction analysis of the sodium salt, [{Na+(18‐crown‐6)(THF)2}3{Na+(18‐crown‐6)(THF)}(1 a2−)2], revealed the presence of a naked dianion. In contrast, controlled reaction of1 awith Cs allowed the isolation of singly and doubly reduced forms of1 a, both forming π‐complexes with cesium ions in the solid state. In [{Cs+(18‐crown‐6)}(1 a)]⋅THF, asymmetric binding of the Cs+ion to the concave surface of1 ais observed, whereas in [{Cs+(18‐crown‐6)}2(1 a2−)], two Cs+ions bind to both the concave and convex surfaces of the dianion. The present study provides the first successful isolation and characterization of the reduced products of heteroatom‐containing buckybowl molecules.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Mono‐ and dianions of 2‐tert‐butyl‐3a2‐azapentabenzo[bc,ef,hi,kl,no]corannulene (1 a) were synthesized by chemical reduction with sodium and cesium metals, and crystallized as the corresponding salts in the presence of 18‐crown‐6 ether. X‐ray diffraction analysis of the sodium salt, [{Na+(18‐crown‐6)(THF)2}3{Na+(18‐crown‐6)(THF)}(1 a2−)2], revealed the presence of a naked dianion. In contrast, controlled reaction of1 awith Cs allowed the isolation of singly and doubly reduced forms of1 a, both forming π‐complexes with cesium ions in the solid state. In [{Cs+(18‐crown‐6)}(1 a)]⋅THF, asymmetric binding of the Cs+ion to the concave surface of1 ais observed, whereas in [{Cs+(18‐crown‐6)}2(1 a2−)], two Cs+ions bind to both the concave and convex surfaces of the dianion. The present study provides the first successful isolation and characterization of the reduced products of heteroatom‐containing buckybowl molecules.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    A sterically strained 32π‐electron antiaromatic bis‐BODIPY macrocycle in which two BODIPY fragments are linked byp‐divinylbenzene groups was prepared and characterized. Unlike regular BODIPYs, the fluorescence in this macrocycle is quenched. The broad signals in the NMR spectra of the macrocycle were explained by the vibronic freedom of thep‐divinylbenzene fragments. The possible diradicaloid nature of the macrocycle was excluded on the basis of variable‐temperature EPR spectra in solution and in solid state, which is indicative of its closed‐shell quinoidal structure. Themeso‐C−H bond in the macrocycle and its precursor BODIPY dialdehyde3forms a weak hydrogen bond with THF and is susceptible for the nucleophilic attack by organic amines and cyanide anion. The reaction products of such a nucleophilic attack havemeso‐sp3carbon atoms and were characterized by NMR, mass spectrometry and, in one case, X‐ray crystallography. Unlike the initial bis‐BODIPY macrocycle, the adducts have strong fluorescence in the 400 nm region. The electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of new chromophores were probed by density functional theory (DFT) and time‐dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations and correlate well with the experimental data.

     
    more » « less