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Title: A Simple Family of Tropical Cyclone Models
This review discusses a simple family of models capable of simulating tropical cyclone life cycles, including intensification, the formation of the axisymmetric version of boundary layer shocks, and the development of an eyewall. Four models are discussed, all of which are axisymmetric, f-plane, three-layer models. All four models have the same parameterizations of convective mass flux and air–sea interaction, but differ in their formulations of the radial and tangential equations of motion, i.e., they have different dry dynamical cores. The most complete model is the primitive equation (PE) model, which uses the unapproximated momentum equations for each of the three layers. The simplest is the gradient balanced (GB) model, which replaces the three radial momentum equations with gradient balance relations and replaces the boundary layer tangential wind equation with a diagnostic equation that is essentially a high Rossby number version of the local Ekman balance. Numerical integrations of the boundary layer equations confirm that the PE model can produce boundary layer shocks, while the GB model cannot. To better understand these differences in GB and PE dynamics, we also consider two hybrid balanced models (HB1 and HB2), which differ from GB only in their treatment of the boundary layer momentum equations. Because their boundary layer dynamics is more accurate than GB, both HB1 and HB2 can produce results more similar to the PE model, if they are solved in an appropriate manner.  more » « less
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Page Range / eLocation ID:
149 to 170
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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