skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Open quantum system violates generalized Pauli constraints on quantum device
Abstract

The Pauli exclusion principle governs the fundamental structure and function of fermionic systems from molecules to materials. Nonetheless, when such a fermionic system is in a pure state, it is subject to additional restrictions known as the generalized Pauli constraints (GPCs). Here we verify experimentally the violation of the GPCs for an open quantum system using data from a superconducting-qubit quantum computer. We prepare states of systems with three-to-seven qubits directly on the quantum device and measure the one-fermion reduced density matrix (1-RDM) from which we can test the GPCs. We find that the GPCs of the 1-RDM are sufficiently sensitive to detect the openness of the 3-to-7 qubit systems in the presence of a single-qubit environment. Results confirm experimentally that the openness of a many-fermion quantum system can be decoded from only a knowledge of the 1-RDM with potential applications from quantum computing and sensing to noise-assisted energy transfer.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2155082 2035876 2121044
NSF-PAR ID:
10432532
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Nature Publishing Group
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Communications Physics
Volume:
6
Issue:
1
ISSN:
2399-3650
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Molecular simulations generally require fermionic encoding in which fermion statistics are encoded into the qubit representation of the wave function. Recent calculations suggest that fermionic encoding of the wave function can be bypassed, leading to more efficient quantum computations. Here we show that the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) can be expressed as a unique functional of the unencodedN-qubit-particle wave function without approximation, and hence, the energy can be expressed as a functional of the 2-RDM without fermionic encoding of the wave function. In contrast to current hardware-efficient methods, the derived functional has a unique, one-to-one (and onto) mapping between the qubit-particle wave functions and 2-RDMs, which avoids the over-parametrization that can lead to optimization difficulties such as barren plateaus. An application to computing the ground-state energy and 2-RDM of H4is presented.

     
    more » « less
  2. Utilizing the framework of\mathbb{Z}_22lattice gauge theories in the context of Pauli stabilizer codes, we present methodologies for simulating fermions via qubit systems on a two-dimensional square lattice. We investigate the symplectic automorphisms of the Pauli module over the Laurent polynomial ring. This enables us to systematically increase the code distances of stabilizer codes while fixing the rate between encoded logical fermions and physical qubits. We identify a family of stabilizer codes suitable for fermion simulation, achieving code distances of d=2,3,4,5,6,7, allowing correction of any\lfloor \frac{d-1}{2} \rfloord12-qubit error. In contrast to the traditional code concatenation approach, our method can increase the code distances without decreasing the (fermionic) code rate. In particular, we explicitly show all stabilizers and logical operators for codes with code distances of d=3,4,5. We provide syndromes for all Pauli errors and invent a syndrome-matching algorithm to compute code distances numerically.

     
    more » « less
  3. Simulating the properties of many-body fermionic systems is an outstanding computational challenge relevant to material science, quantum chemistry, and particle physics.-5.4pc]Please note that the spelling of the following author names in the manuscript differs from the spelling provided in the article metadata: D. González-Cuadra, D. Bluvstein, M. Kalinowski, R. Kaubruegger, N. Maskara, P. Naldesi, T. V. Zache, A. M. Kaufman, M. D. Lukin, H. Pichler, B. Vermersch, Jun Ye, and P. Zoller. The spelling provided in the manuscript has been retained; please confirm. Although qubit-based quantum computers can potentially tackle this problem more efficiently than classical devices, encoding nonlocal fermionic statistics introduces an overhead in the required resources, limiting their applicability on near-term architectures. In this work, we present a fermionic quantum processor, where fermionic models are locally encoded in a fermionic register and simulated in a hardware-efficient manner using fermionic gates. We consider in particular fermionic atoms in programmable tweezer arrays and develop different protocols to implement nonlocal gates, guaranteeing Fermi statistics at the hardware level. We use this gate set, together with Rydberg-mediated interaction gates, to find efficient circuit decompositions for digital and variational quantum simulation algorithms, illustrated here for molecular energy estimation. Finally, we consider a combined fermion-qubit architecture, where both the motional and internal degrees of freedom of the atoms are harnessed to efficiently implement quantum phase estimation as well as to simulate lattice gauge theory dynamics.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Quantum annealing is a powerful alternative model of quantum computing, which can succeed in the presence of environmental noise even without error correction. However, despite great effort, no conclusive demonstration of a quantum speedup (relative to state of the art classical algorithms) has been shown for these systems, and rigorous theoretical proofs of a quantum advantage (such as the adiabatic formulation of Grover’s search problem) generally rely on exponential precision in at least some aspects of the system, an unphysical resource guaranteed to be scrambled by experimental uncertainties and random noise. In this work, we propose a new variant of quantum annealing, called RFQA, which can maintain a scalable quantum speedup in the face of noise and modest control precision. Specifically, we consider a modification of flux qubit-based quantum annealing which includes low-frequency oscillations in the directions of the transverse field terms as the system evolves. We show that this method produces a quantum speedup for finding ground states in the Grover problem and quantum random energy model, and thus should be widely applicable to other hard optimization problems which can be formulated as quantum spin glasses. Further, we explore three realistic noise channels and show that the speedup from RFQA is resilient to 1/f-like local potential fluctuations and local heating from interaction with a sufficiently low temperature bath. Another noise channel, bath-assisted quantum cooling transitions, actually accelerates the algorithm and may outweigh the negative effects of the others. We also detail how RFQA may be implemented experimentally with current technology.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    “What are the consequences… that Fermi particles cannot get into the same state…” R. P. Feynman wrote of the Pauli exclusion principle, “In fact, almost all the peculiarities of the material world hinge on this wonderful fact.” In 1972 Borland and Dennis showed that there exist powerful constraints beyond the Pauli exclusion principle on the orbital occupations of Fermi particles, providing important restrictions on quantum correlation and entanglement. Here we use computations on quantum computers to experimentally verify the existence of these additional constraints. Quantum many-fermion states are randomly prepared on the quantum computer and tested for constraint violations. Measurements show no violation and confirm the generalized Pauli exclusion principle with an error of one part in one quintillion.

     
    more » « less