skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Johnstonella punensis (Boraginaceae), a new species endemic to the dry Puna of Chile
In an earlier molecular phylogenetic study, a sample of what was originally identified as Cryptantha hispida (Boraginaceae) from Chile, grouped with species of the genus Johnstonella . This sample was subsequently shown not to be C. hispida , but an undescribed species, endemic to the dry Puna of Chile. This new species is described here as Johnstonella punensis , along with a key to all South American species of the genus. Johnstonella punensis resembles other members of that genus in having an ovate fruit shape, ovate nutlets and a long style that extends beyond the nutlets. It is unusual in the genus in having a non-tuberculate, dimpled to rugulose nutlet surface sculpturing. Its closest relative within the genus is likely the South American J. diplotricha .  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1802301
NSF-PAR ID:
10434277
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
PhytoKeys
Volume:
197
ISSN:
1314-2011
Page Range / eLocation ID:
149 to 164
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Blapstinus Dejean is the most taxonomically challenging genus within Blapstinina Mulsant & Rey (Tenebrionidae: Opatrini). With over 120 species, it is widely distributed throughout the Americas, with representatives reaching Canada on the northern range edge, and Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay in the south. Traditionally, Blapstinus has been distinguished from other blapstinoid beetles via well-developed metathoracic wings and their lack of synapomorphies present in other genera; however, fused and tapering aedeagal parameres were recently introduced as a potential autapomorphy for the genus. This study used molecular data (nuclear ribosomal 28S, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII), arginine kinase (ArgK), carbomyl-phosphate synthetase domain of rudimentary (CAD), and wingless (wg)) to investigate the phylogenetic placement and taxonomic status of three Blapstinus species with distinct male genitalic morphology, i.e. Blapstinus tibialis Champion (USA), B. grandis Champion (Mexico, Nicaragua), and B. punctulatus Solier (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay). Analyses highlight the phylogenetic informativeness of the aedeagal morphology within the subtribe, and support an urgent need for taxonomic studies of South American taxa. Blapstinus tibialis and B. grandis were recovered as a specific lineage within Blapstinus that can be easily distinguished from remaining congeners by having tridentate parameres. A lectotype for B. grandis is designated to fix the taxonomic status of this species. Blapstinus punctulatus was recovered outside of its current genus which, along with aedeagal morphology, supports a change of status of the species. As a result, the following synonymy and combinations are introduced: Lodinus Mulsant and Rey stat. restit. (=Austrocaribius Marcuzzi syn. nov.), Lodinus araguae (Marcuzzi) comb. et stat. nov., L. punctulatus comb. nov., L. venezuelensis (Marcuzzi) comb. nov. Lectotypes for Lodinus nigroaeneus Mulsant and Rey, L. araguae, and L. punctulatus are designated to fix the taxonomic status of these species. 
    more » « less
  2. Amylascusis a genus of ectomycorrhizal truffles withinPezizaceaethat is known from Australia and contains only two described species,A. herbertianusandA. tasmanicus. Species ofAmylascusare closely related to truffles (Pachyphlodes,Luteoamylascus) and cup fungi (Plicariella) from the Northern Hemisphere. Here we reevaluate the species diversity ofAmylascusand related taxa from southern South America and Australia based on new morphological and molecular data. We identify previously undocumented diversity and morphological variability in ascospore color, ascospore ornamentation, hymenial construction, epithecium structure and the amyloid reaction of the ascus in Melzer’s reagent. We redescribe twoAmylascusspecies from Australia and describe seven newAmylascusspecies, five from South America and two from Australia. This is the first report ofAmylascusspecies from South America. We also describe the new South American genusNothoamylascusas sister lineage to thePachyphlodes-Amylascus-Luteoamylascusclade (includingAmylascus,Luteoamylascus,Pachyphlodes, andPlicariella). We obtained ITS sequences of mitotic spore mats fromNothoamylascus erubescensgen. & sp. nov. and four of the seven newly describedAmylascusspecies, providing the first evidence of mitotic spore mats inAmylascus. Additional ITS sequences from mitotic spore mats reveal the presence of nine additional undescribedAmylascusand oneNothoamylascusspecies that do not correspond to any sampled ascomata. We also identify three additional undescribedAmylascusspecies based on environmental sequences from the feces of two ground-dwelling bird species from Chile,Scelorchilus rubeculaandPteroptochos tarnii. Our results indicate that ascomata fromAmylascusandNothoamylascusspecies are rarely collected, but molecular data from ectomycorrhizal roots and mitotic spore mats indicate that these species are probably common and widespread in southern South America. Finally, we present a time-calibrated phylogeny that is consistent with a late Gondwanan distribution. The time since the most recent common ancestor of: 1) the familyPezizaceaehad a mean of 276 Ma (217–337 HPD); 2) theAmylascus-Pachyphlodes-Nothoamylascus-Luteoamylascusclade had a mean of 79 Ma (60–100 HPD); and 3) theAmylascus-Pachyphlodesclade had a mean of 50 Ma (38–62 HPD). The crown age ofPachyphlodeshad a mean of 39 Ma (25–42 HPD) andAmylascushad a mean age of 28 Ma (20–37 HPD), falling near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and the onset of the Antarctic glaciation (c. 35 Ma).

     
    more » « less
  3. South American Ungulates (SANUs) exhibit astonishing morphological and ecological diversity due to their almost complete isolation during their early evolution. This unique diversity coupled with the limited fossil record of their earliest evolution makes it difficult to establish their phylogenetic position within the placental mammal tree. Litopterna is the second most diverse order of SANUs after only Notoungulata, with species ranging from the middle Paleocene (~63 Ma) to the late Pleistocene. Among SANUs, litopterns are characterized by having cursorial limbs similar to Holarctic groups like Perissodactyla. Currently there are 67 genera of litopterns grouped into nine families, and the affinities of the Paleogene families remain unclear. Furthermore, it is unclear how litopterns are related to older groups of “archaic” Paleogene ungulates of South America (Kollpaninae and Didolodontidae) and North America (e.g., Mioclaenidae), and other SANUs. To test the phylogenetic relationships of Litopterna, we assembled a new morphological matrix with ~1000 craniodental and postcranial characters for 79 taxa. The data were subjected to Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses. We conducted tip-dated and undated Bayesian analyses using a Mk + G model of morphological evolution. Fifty percent majority rule consensus trees were obtained from the sampled trees from each analysis. The parsimony analysis resulted in ten most parsimonious trees and a strict consensus was computed. The consensus trees derived from the different analyses were largely congruent. A traditional monophyletic Litopterna failed to be recovered as Protolipternidae was closely related to Didolodontidae. Litopterna was found more closely related to Kollpaninae than to North American Mioclaenidae, and Kollpaninae did not form a monophyletic group with the latter. Adianthidae and Indaleciidae were found in a relatively basal position within Litopterna. Macraucheniidae was found as a sister group to Proterotheriidae, whereas Anisolambdidae was the sister group of Sparnotheriodontidae, these four families forming a monophyletic group. By utilizing a more comprehensive approach, these results alter previous conceptions of the intrafamilial affinities within Litopterna and their position among other Paleogene ungulates, shedding new light on how litopterns evolved and diversified during the Paleogene of South America. Funding Sources ANID-PFCHA-Doctorado en el extranjero Becas Chile-2018-72190003, ERC starting grant PalM 756226, NSF DEB 1654949 and 1654952 
    more » « less
  4. The echinoid genus Tetrapygus was initially described by L. Agassiz (1841) based on a single species, Tetrapygus niger Molina, 1782. Since the extensive work conducted by Mortensen (1935), Tetrapygus has received limited taxonomic attention over the past century. Recent discoveries of new fossil species of Arbacia Gray, 1835 from the upper Pliocene of northern Chile revealed striking morphological similarities between the two distinct Arbaciidae genera Arbacia and Tetrapygus. These findings compelled new investigations to evaluate the taxonomic status of these genera. Based on molecular mitochondrial (COI), nuclear (28S), and morphological evidence, Tetrapygus niger is here recovered as the sister species to Arbacia dufresnii, both species forming a clade within the phylogeny of South American species of Arbacia. Consequently, the diagnosis and description of Tetrapygus niger are here revised, and the species is reattributed to Arbacia, as previously proposed by A. Agassiz in Agassiz & Desor (1846) under the species name Arbacia nigra. An emended diagnosis of Arbacia is also proposed in light of these new findings. 

     
    more » « less
  5. The freshwater red algal order Thoreales has triphasic life history composed of a diminutive diploid “Chantransia” stage, a distinctive macroscopic gametophyte with multi‐axial growth and carposporophytes that develop on the gametophyte thallus. This order is comprised of two genera,ThoreaandNemalionopsis.Thoreahas been widely reported with numerous species, whereasNemalionopsishas been more rarely observed with only a few species described.DNAsequences from three loci (rbcL,cox1, andLSU) were used to examine the phylogenetic affinity of specimens collected from geographically distant locations including North America, South America, Europe, Pacific Islands, Southeast Asia, China, and India. Sixteen species ofThoreaand two species ofNemalionopsiswere recognized. Morphological observations confirmed the distinctness of the two genera and also provided some characters to distinguish species. However, many of the collections were in “Chantransia” stage rather than gametophyte stage, meaning that key diagnostic morphological characters were unavailable. Three new species are proposed primarily based on theDNAsequence data generated in this study,Thorea kokosinga‐pueschelii,T. mauitukitukii,andT. quisqueyana. In addition to these newly described species, oneDNAsequence from GenBank was not closely associated with otherThoreaclades and may represent further diversity in the genus. Two species inNemalionopsisare recognized,N. shawiiandN. parkerinom. et stat. nov.Thoreaharbors more diversity than had been recognized by morphological data alone. Distribution data indicated thatNemalionopsisis common in the Pacific region, whereasThoreais more globally distributed. Most species ofThoreahave a regional distribution, butThorea hispidaappears to be cosmopolitan.

     
    more » « less