This content will become publicly available on June 26, 2024
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- Frontiers in Physics
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- National Science Foundation
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Using millimeter wave (mmWave) signals for imaging has an important advantage in that they can penetrate through poor environmental conditions such as fog, dust, and smoke that severely degrade optical-based imaging systems. However, mmWave radars, contrary to cameras and LiDARs, suffer from low angular resolution because of small physical apertures and conventional signal processing techniques. Sparse radar imaging, on the other hand, can increase the aperture size while minimizing the power consumption and read out bandwidth. This paper presents CoIR, an analysis by synthesis method that leverages the implicit neural network bias in convolutional decoders and compressed sensing to perform high accuracy sparse radar imaging. The proposed system is data set-agnostic and does not require any auxiliary sensors for training or testing. We introduce a sparse array design that allows for a 5.5× reduction in the number of antenna elements needed compared to conventional MIMO array designs. We demonstrate our system's improved imaging performance over standard mmWave radars and other competitive untrained methods on both simulated and experimental mmWave radar data.more » « less
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Hybrid beamforming (HBF) is a key enabler for millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications systems, but HBF optimizations are often non-convex and of large dimension. In this paper, we propose an efficient deep unfolding-based HBF scheme, referred to as ManNet-HBF, that approximately maximizes the system spectral efficiency (SE). It first factorizes the optimal digital beamformer into analog and digital terms, and then reformulates the resultant matrix factorization problem as an equivalent maximum-likelihood problem, whose analog beamforming solution is vectorized and estimated efficiently with ManNet, a lightweight deep neural network. Numerical results verify that the proposed ManNet-HBF approach has near-optimal performance comparable to or better than conventional model-based counterparts, with very low complexity and a fast run time. For example, in a simulation with 128 transmit antennas, it attains 98.62% the SE of the Riemannian manifold scheme but 13250 times faster.more » « less
Abstract Deep-learning models have become pervasive tools in science and engineering. However, their energy requirements now increasingly limit their scalability 1 . Deep-learning accelerators 2–9 aim to perform deep learning energy-efficiently, usually targeting the inference phase and often by exploiting physical substrates beyond conventional electronics. Approaches so far 10–22 have been unable to apply the backpropagation algorithm to train unconventional novel hardware in situ. The advantages of backpropagation have made it the de facto training method for large-scale neural networks, so this deficiency constitutes a major impediment. Here we introduce a hybrid in situ–in silico algorithm, called physics-aware training, that applies backpropagation to train controllable physical systems. Just as deep learning realizes computations with deep neural networks made from layers of mathematical functions, our approach allows us to train deep physical neural networks made from layers of controllable physical systems, even when the physical layers lack any mathematical isomorphism to conventional artificial neural network layers. To demonstrate the universality of our approach, we train diverse physical neural networks based on optics, mechanics and electronics to experimentally perform audio and image classification tasks. Physics-aware training combines the scalability of backpropagation with the automatic mitigation of imperfections and noise achievable with in situ algorithms. Physical neural networks have the potential to perform machine learning faster and more energy-efficiently than conventional electronic processors and, more broadly, can endow physical systems with automatically designed physical functionalities, for example, for robotics 23–26 , materials 27–29 and smart sensors 30–32 .more » « less
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