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We detail several interesting features in the dynamics of an equilaterally shaped electronic excitation-transfer (EET) trimer with distance-dependent intermonomer excitation-transfer couplings. In the absence of electronic-vibrational coupling, symmetric and antisymmetric superpositions of two single-monomer excitations are shown to exhibit purely constructive, oscillatory, and purely destructive interference in the EET to the third monomer, respectively. In the former case, the transfer is modulated by motion in the symmetrical framework-expansion vibration induced by the Franck–Condon excitation. Distortions in the shape of the triangular framework degrade that coherent EET while activating excitation transfer in the latter case of an antisymmetric initial state. In its symmetrical configuration, two of the three single-exciton states of the trimer are degenerate. This degeneracy is broken by the Jahn–Teller-active framework distortions. The calculations illustrate closed, approximately circular pseudo-rotational wave-packet dynamics on both the lower and the upper adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the degenerate manifold, which lead to the acquisition after one cycle of physically meaningful geometric (Berry) phases of π. Another manifestation of Berry-phase development is seen in the evolution of the vibrational probability density of a wave packet on the lower Jahn–Teller adiabatic potential comprising a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circular motions. The circular pseudo-rotation on the upper cone is shown to stabilize the adiabatic electronic state against non-adiabatic internal conversion via the conical intersection, a dynamical process analogous to Slonczewski resonance. Strategies for initiating and monitoring these various dynamical processes experimentally using pre-resonant impulsive Raman excitation, short-pulse absorption, and multi-dimensional wave-packet interferometry are outlined in brief.more » « less
Quantum states can acquire a geometric phase called the Berry phase after adiabatically traversing a closed loop, which depends on the path not the rate of motion. The Berry phase is analogous to the Aharonov–Bohm phase derived from the electromagnetic vector potential, and can be expressed in terms of an Abelian gauge potential called the Berry connection. Wilczek and Zee extended this concept to include non-Abelian phases—characterized by the gauge-independent Wilson loop—resulting from non-Abelian gauge potentials. Using an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate, we quantum-engineered a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field, generated by a Yang monopole located at the origin of a 5-dimensional parameter space. By slowly encircling the monopole, we characterized the Wilczek–Zee phase in terms of the Wilson loop, that depended on the solid-angle subtended by the encircling path: a generalization of Stokes’ theorem. This observation marks the observation of the Wilson loop resulting from a non-Abelian point source.
The Pancharatnam–Berry phase is a geometric phase acquired over a cycle of parameters in the Hamiltonian governing the evolution of the system. Here, we report on the observation of the Pancharatnam–Berry phase in a condensate of indirect excitons (IXs) in a GaAs-coupled quantum well structure. The Pancharatnam–Berry phase is directly measured by detecting phase shifts of interference fringes in IX interference patterns. Correlations are found between the phase shifts, polarization pattern of IX emission, and onset of IX spontaneous coherence. The evolving Pancharatnam–Berry phase is acquired due to coherent spin precession in IX condensate and is observed with no decay over lengths exceeding 10 μm indicating long-range coherent spin transport.
null (Ed.)We discuss how the language of wave functions (state vectors) andassociated non-commuting Hermitian operators naturally emerges fromclassical mechanics by applying the inverse Wigner-Weyl transform to thephase space probability distribution and observables. In this language,the Schr"odinger equation follows from the Liouville equation, with \hbar ℏ now a free parameter. Classical stationary distributions can berepresented as sums over stationary states with discrete (quantized)energies, where these states directly correspond to quantum eigenstates.Interestingly, it is now classical mechanics which allows for apparentnegative probabilities to occupy eigenstates, dual to the negativeprobabilities in Wigner’s quasiprobability distribution. These negativeprobabilities are shown to disappear when allowing sufficientuncertainty in the classical distributions. We show that thiscorrespondence is particularly pronounced for canonical Gibbs ensembles,where classical eigenstates satisfy an integral eigenvalue equation thatreduces to the Schr"odinger equation in a saddle-pointapproximation controlled by the inverse temperature. We illustrate thiscorrespondence by showing that some paradigmatic examples such astunneling, band structures, Berry phases, Landau levels, levelstatistics and quantum eigenstates in chaotic potentials can bereproduced to a surprising precision from a classical Gibbs ensemble,without any reference to quantum mechanics and with all parameters(including \hbar ℏ )on the order of unity.more » « less
The geometric phase of an electronic wave function, also known as Berry phase, is the fundamental basis of the topological properties in solids. This phase can be tuned by modulating the band structure of a material, providing a way to drive a topological phase transition. However, despite significant efforts in designing and understanding topological materials, it remains still challenging to tune a given material across different topological phases while tracing the impact of the Berry phase on its quantum transport properties. Here, we report these two effects in a magnetotransport study of ZrTe5. By tuning the band structure with uniaxial strain, we use quantum oscillations to directly map a weak-to-strong topological insulator phase transition through a gapless Dirac semimetal phase. Moreover, we demonstrate the impact of the strain-tunable spin-dependent Berry phase on the Zeeman effect through the amplitude of the quantum oscillations. We show that such a spin-dependent Berry phase, largely neglected in solid-state systems, is critical in modeling quantum oscillations in Dirac bands of topological materials.