skip to main content

Title: The Circumgalactic Medium of Extreme Emission Line Galaxies at z∼2: Resolved Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Modeling of Spatially Extended Lyα Emission in the KBSS-KCWI Survey*

The resonantly scattered Lyαline illuminates the extended halos of neutral hydrogen in the circumgalactic medium of galaxies. We present integral field Keck Cosmic Web Imager observations of double-peaked, spatially extended Lyαemission in 12 relatively low-mass (M∼ 109M)z∼ 2 galaxies characterized by extreme nebular emission lines. Using individual spaxels and small bins as well as radially binned profiles of larger regions, we find that for most objects in the sample the Lyαblue-to-red peak ratio increases, the peak separation decreases, and the fraction of flux emerging at line center increases with radius. We use new radiative transfer simulations to model each galaxy with a clumpy, multiphase outflow with radially varying outflow velocity, and self-consistently apply the same velocity model to the low-ionization interstellar absorption lines. These models reproduce the trends of peak ratio, peak separation, and trough depth with radius, and broadly reconcile outflow velocities inferred from Lyαand absorption lines. The galaxies in our sample are well-described by a model in which neutral, outflowing clumps are embedded in a hotter, more highly ionized inter-clump medium (ICM), whose residual neutral content produces absorption at the systemic redshift. The peak ratio, peak separation, and trough flux fraction are primarily governed by the line-of-sight component of the outflow velocity, the Hicolumn density, and the residual neutral density in the ICM respectively. The azimuthal asymmetries in the line profile further suggest nonradial gas motions at large radii and variations in the Hicolumn density in the outer halos.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Medium: X Size: Article No. 118
["Article No. 118"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Lyαline profiles are a powerful probe of interstellar medium (ISM) structure, outflow speed, and Lyman-continuum escape fraction. In this paper, we present the Lyαline profiles of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) Legacy Archive Spectroscopic SurveY, a sample rich in spectroscopic analogs of reionization-era galaxies. A large fraction of the spectra show a complex profile, consisting of a double-peaked Lyαemission profile in the bottom of a damped, Lyαabsorption trough. Such profiles reveal an inhomogeneous ISM. We successfully fit the damped Lyαabsorption and the Lyαemission profiles separately, but with complementary covering factors, a surprising result because this approach requires no Lyαexchange between high-NHiand low-NHipaths. The combined distribution of column densities is qualitatively similar to the bimodal distributions observed in numerical simulations. We find an inverse relation between Lyαpeak separation and the [Oiii]/[Oii] flux ratio, confirming that the covering fraction of Lyman-continuum-thin sightlines increases as the Lyαpeak separation decreases. We combine measurements of Lyαpeak separation and Lyαred peak asymmetry in a diagnostic diagram, which identifies six Lyman-continuum leakers in the COS Legacy Archive Spectrocopy SurveY (CLASSY) sample. We find a strong correlation between the Lyαtrough velocity and the outflow velocity measured from interstellar absorption lines. We argue that greater vignetting of the blueshifted Lyαpeak, relative to the redshifted peak, is the source of the well-known discrepancy between shell-model parameters and directly measured outflow properties. The CLASSY sample illustrates how scattering of Lyαphotons outside the spectroscopic aperture reshapes Lyαprofiles because the distances to these compact starbursts span a large range.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We use medium- and high-resolution spectroscopy of close pairs of quasars to analyze the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding 32 damped Lyαabsorption systems (DLAs). The primary quasar sightline in each pair probes an intervening DLA in the redshift range 1.6 <zabs< 3.5, such that the secondary sightline probes absorption from Lyαand a large suite of metal-line transitions (including Oi, Cii, Civ, Siii, and Siiv) in the DLA host galaxy’s CGM at transverse distances 24 kpc ≤R≤ 284 kpc. Analysis of Lyαin the CGM sightlines shows an anticorrelation betweenRand Hicolumn density (NHI) with 99.8% confidence, similar to that observed around luminous galaxies. The incidences of Ciiand SiiiwithN> 1013cm−2within 100 kpc of DLAs are larger by 2σthan those measured in the CGM of Lyman break galaxies (Cf(NCII) > 0.89 andCf(NSiII)=0.750.17+0.12). Metallicity constraints derived from ionic ratios for nine CGM systems with negligible ionization corrections andNHI> 1018.5cm−2show a significant degree of scatter (with metallicities/limits across the range2.06logZ/Z0.75), suggesting inhomogeneity in the metal distribution in these environments. Velocity widths of Civλ1548 and low-ionization metal species in the DLA versus CGM sightlines are strongly (>2σ) correlated, suggesting that they trace the potential well of the host halo overR≲ 300 kpc scales. At the same time, velocity centroids for Civλ1548 differ in DLA versus CGM sightlines by >100 km s−1for ∼50% of velocity components, but few components have velocities that would exceed the escape velocity assuming dark matter host halos of ≥1012M.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Using the CoDa II simulation, we study the Lyαtransmissivity of the intergalactic medium (IGM) during reionization. Atz> 6, a typical galaxy without an active galactic nucleus fails to form a proximity zone around itself due to the overdensity of the surrounding IGM. The gravitational infall motion in the IGM makes the resonance absorption extend to the red side of Lyα, suppressing the transmission up to roughly the circular velocity of the galaxy. In some sight lines, an optically thin blob generated by a supernova in a neighboring galaxy results in a peak feature, which can be mistaken for a blue peak. Redward of the resonance absorption, the damping-wing opacity correlates with the global IGM neutral fraction and the UV magnitude of the source galaxy. Brighter galaxies tend to suffer lower opacity because they tend to reside in larger Hiiregions, and the surrounding IGM transmits redder photons, which are less susceptible to attenuation, owing to stronger infall velocity. The Hiiregions are highly nonspherical, causing both sight-line-to-sight-line and galaxy-to-galaxy variation in opacity. Also, self-shielded systems within Hiiregions strongly attenuate the emission for certain sight lines. All these factors add to the transmissivity variation, requiring a large sample size to constrain the average transmission. The variation is largest for fainter galaxies at higher redshift. The 68% range of the transmissivity is similar to or greater than the median for galaxies withMUV≥ −21 atz≥ 7, implying that more than a hundred galaxies would be needed to measure the transmission to 10% accuracy.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We analyze the cool gas in and around 14 nearby galaxies (atz< 0.1) mapped with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV MaNGA survey by measuring absorption lines produced by gas in spectra of background quasars/active galactic nuclei at impact parameters of 0–25 effective radii from the galactic centers. Using Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, we detect absorption at the galactic redshift and measure or constrain column densities of neutral (Hi, Ni, Oi, and Ari), low-ionization (Siii, Sii, Cii, Nii, and Feii), and high-ionization (Siiii, Feiii, Nv, and Ovi) species for 11 galaxies. We derive the ionization parameter and ionization-corrected metallicity usingcloudyphotoionization models. The Hicolumn density ranges from ∼1013to ∼1020cm−2and decreases with impact parameter forrRe. Galaxies with higher stellar mass have weaker Hiabsorption. Comparing absorption velocities with MaNGA radial velocity maps of ionized gas line emissions in galactic disks, we find that the neutral gas seen in absorption corotates with the disk out to ∼10Re. Sight lines with lower elevation angles show lower metallicities, consistent with the metallicity gradient in the disk derived from MaNGA maps. Higher-elevation angle sight lines show higher ionization, lower Hicolumn density, supersolar metallicity, and velocities consistent with the direction of galactic outflow. Our data offer the first detailed comparisons of circumgalactic medium (CGM) properties (kinematics and metallicity) with extrapolations of detailed galaxy maps from integral field spectroscopy; similar studies for larger samples are needed to more fully understand how galaxies interact with their CGM.

    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT This paper presents a detailed analysis of two giant Lyman-alpha (Ly α) arcs detected near galaxies at z = 3.038 and z = 3.754 lensed by the massive cluster MACS 1206−0847 (z = 0.44). The Ly α nebulae revealed in deep MUSE observations exhibit a double-peaked profile with a dominant red peak, indicating expansion/outflowing motions. One of the arcs stretches over 1 arcmin around the cluster Einstein radius, resolving the velocity field of the line-emitting gas on kpc scales around three star-forming galaxies of 0.3–$1.6\, L_*$ at z = 3.038. The second arc spans 15 arcsec in size, roughly centred around two low-mass Ly α emitters of $\approx 0.03\, L_*$ at z = 3.754. All three galaxies in the z = 3.038 group exhibit prominent damped Ly α absorption (DLA) and several metal absorption lines, in addition to nebular emission lines such as $\hbox{He ii}$$\lambda \, 1640$ and C iii]λλ1906, 1908. Extended Ly α emission appears to emerge from star-forming regions with suppressed surface brightness at the centre of each galaxy. Significant spatial variations in the Ly α line profile are observed which, when unaccounted for in the integrated line, leads to biased constraints for the underlying gas kinematics. The observed spatial variations indicate the presence of a steep velocity gradient in a continuous flow of high column density gas from star-forming regions into a low-density halo environment. A detailed inspection of available galaxy spectra shows no evidence of AGN activity in the galaxies, and the observed Ly α signals are primarily explained by resonant scattering. The study presented in this paper shows that spatially resolved imaging spectroscopy provides the most detailed insights yet into the kinematics of galactic superwinds associated with star-forming galaxies. 
    more » « less