skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2024

Title: Strain-tunable Berry curvature in quasi-two-dimensional chromium telluride
Abstract Magnetic transition metal chalcogenides form an emerging platform for exploring spin-orbit driven Berry phase phenomena owing to the nontrivial interplay between topology and magnetism. Here we show that the anomalous Hall effect in pristine Cr 2 Te 3 thin films manifests a unique temperature-dependent sign reversal at nonzero magnetization, resulting from the momentum-space Berry curvature as established by first-principles simulations. The sign change is strain tunable, enabled by the sharp and well-defined substrate/film interface in the quasi-two-dimensional Cr 2 Te 3 epitaxial films, revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and depth-sensitive polarized neutron reflectometry. This Berry phase effect further introduces hump-shaped Hall peaks in pristine Cr 2 Te 3 near the coercive field during the magnetization switching process, owing to the presence of strain-modulated magnetic layers/domains. The versatile interface tunability of Berry curvature in Cr 2 Te 3 thin films offers new opportunities for topological electronics.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; « less
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The inverse spinel ferrimagnetic NiCo2O4possesses high magnetic Curie temperature TC, high spin polarization, and strain-tunable magnetic anisotropy. Understanding the thickness scaling limit of these intriguing magnetic properties in NiCo2O4thin films is critical for their implementation in nanoscale spintronic applications. In this work, we report the unconventional magnetotransport properties of epitaxial (001) NiCo2O4films on MgAl2O4substrates in the ultrathin limit. Anomalous Hall effect measurements reveal strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for films down to 1.5 unit cell (1.2 nm), while TCfor 3 unit cell and thicker films remains above 300 K. The sign change in the anomalous Hall conductivity [Formula: see text] and its scaling relation with the longitudinal conductivity ([Formula: see text]) can be attributed to the competing effects between impurity scattering and band intrinsic Berry curvature, with the latter vanishing upon the thickness driven metal–insulator transition. Our study reveals the critical role of film thickness in tuning the relative strength of charge correlation, Berry phase effect, spin–orbit interaction, and impurity scattering, providing important material information for designing scalable epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions and sensing devices using NiCo2O4.

    more » « less
  2. In materials with broken time-reversal symmetry, the Berry curvature acts as a recip- rocal space magnetic field on the conduction electrons and is a significant contribution to the magnetotransport properties, including the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect. Here, we report neutron diffraction, transport, and magnetization measurements of thin films of doped EuTiO3, an itinerant magnetic material, as a function of carrier density and magnetic field. These films are itinerant antiferromagnets at all doping concentrations. At low carrier densities, the magnetoresistance indicates a metamag- netic transition, which is absent at high carrier densities (>6 × 1020 cm-3). Strikingly, the crossover coincides with a sign change in the spontaneous Hall effects, indicating a sign change in the Berry curvature. We discuss the results in the context of the band structure topology and its coupling to the magnetic texture. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect is characterized by a dissipationless chiral edge state with a quantized Hall resistance at zero magnetic field. Manipulating the QAH state is of great importance in both the understanding of topological quantum physics and the implementation of dissipationless electronics. Here, the QAH effect is realized in the magnetic topological insulator Cr‐doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3(CBST) grown on an uncompensated antiferromagnetic insulator Al‐doped Cr2O3. Through polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR), a strong exchange coupling is found between CBST and Al‐Cr2O3surface spins fixing interfacial magnetic moments perpendicular to the film plane. The interfacial coupling results in an exchange‐biased QAH effect. This study further demonstrates that the magnitude and sign of the exchange bias can be effectively controlled using a field training process to set the magnetization of the Al‐Cr2O3layer. It demonstrates the use of the exchange bias effect to effectively manipulate the QAH state, opening new possibilities in QAH‐based spintronics.

    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Multi-functional thin films of boron (B) doped Cr 2 O 3 exhibit voltage-controlled and nonvolatile Néel vector reorientation in the absence of an applied magnetic field, H . Toggling of antiferromagnetic states is demonstrated in prototype device structures at CMOS compatible temperatures between 300 and 400 K. The boundary magnetization associated with the Néel vector orientation serves as state variable which is read via magnetoresistive detection in a Pt Hall bar adjacent to the B:Cr 2 O 3 film. Switching of the Hall voltage between zero and non-zero values implies Néel vector rotation by 90 degrees. Combined magnetometry, spin resolved inverse photoemission, electric transport and scanning probe microscopy measurements reveal B-dependent T N and resistivity enhancement, spin-canting, anisotropy reduction, dynamic polarization hysteresis and gate voltage dependent orientation of boundary magnetization. The combined effect enables H  = 0, voltage controlled, nonvolatile Néel vector rotation at high-temperature. Theoretical modeling estimates switching speeds of about 100 ps making B:Cr 2 O 3 a promising multifunctional single-phase material for energy efficient nonvolatile CMOS compatible memory applications. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Being able to electrically manipulate the magnetic properties in recently discovered van der Waals ferromagnets is essential for their integration in future spintronics devices. Here, the magnetization of a semiconducting 2D ferromagnet, i.e., Cr2Ge2Te6, is studied using the anomalous Hall effect in Cr2Ge2Te6/tantalum heterostructures. The thinner the flakes, hysteresis and remanence in the magnetization loop with out‐of‐plane magnetic fields become more prominent. In order to manipulate the magnetization in such thin flakes, a combination of an in‐plane magnetic field and a charge current flowing through Ta—a heavy metal exhibiting giant spin Hall effect—is used. In the presence of in‐plane fields of 20 mT, charge current densities as low as 5 × 105A cm–2are sufficient to switch the out‐of‐plane magnetization of Cr2Ge2Te6. This finding highlights that current densities required for spin‐orbit torque switching of Cr2Ge2Te6are about two orders of magnitude lower than those required for switching nonlayered metallic ferromagnets such as CoFeB. The results presented here show the potential of 2D ferromagnets for low‐power memory and logic applications.

    more » « less