skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on June 4, 2024

Title: Learning Cross-Modal Audiovisual Representations with Ladder Networks for Emotion Recognition
Representation learning is a challenging, but essential task in audiovisual learning. A key challenge is to generate strong cross-modal representations while still capturing discriminative information contained in unimodal features. Properly capturing this information is important to increase accuracy and robustness in audio-visual tasks. Focusing on emotion recognition, this study proposes novel cross-modal ladder networks to capture modality-specific in-formation while building strong cross-modal representations. Our method utilizes representations from a backbone network to implement unsupervised auxiliary tasks to reconstruct intermediate layer representations across the acoustic and visual networks. The skip connections between the cross-modal encoder and decoder provide powerful modality-specific and multimodal representations for emotion recognition. Our model on the CREMA-D corpus achieves high performance with precision, recall, and F1 scores over 80% on a six-class problem.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1718944
NSF-PAR ID:
10441291
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2023)
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 5
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Learning multimodal representations is a fundamentally complex research problem due to the presence of multiple heterogeneous sources of information. Although the presence of multiple modalities provides additional valuable information, there are two key challenges to address when learning from multimodal data: 1) models must learn the complex intra-modal and cross-modal interactions for prediction and 2) models must be robust to unexpected missing or noisy modalities during testing. In this paper, we propose to optimize for a joint generative-discriminative objective across multimodal data and labels. We introduce a model that factorizes representations into two sets of independent factors: multimodal discriminative and modality-specific generative factors. Multimodal discriminative factors are shared across all modalities and contain joint multimodal features required for discriminative tasks such as sentiment prediction. Modality-specific generative factors are unique for each modality and contain the information required for generating data. Experimental results show that our model is able to learn meaningful multimodal representations that achieve state-of-the-art or competitive performance on six multimodal datasets. Our model demonstrates flexible generative capabilities by conditioning on independent factors and can reconstruct missing modalities without significantly impacting performance. Lastly, we interpret our factorized representations to understand the interactions that influence multimodal learning. 
    more » « less
  2. Speech emotion recognition (SER) is a challenging task due to the limited availability of real-world labeled datasets. Since it is easier to find unlabeled data, the use of self-supervised learning (SSL) has become an attractive alternative. This study proposes new pre-text tasks for SSL to improve SER. While our target application is SER, the proposed pre-text tasks include audio-visual formulations, leveraging the relationship between acoustic and facial features. Our proposed approach introduces three new unimodal and multimodal pre-text tasks that are carefully designed to learn better representations for predicting emotional cues from speech. Task 1 predicts energy variations (high or low) from a speech sequence. Task 2 uses speech features to predict facial activation (high or low) based on facial landmark movements. Task 3 performs a multi-class emotion recognition task on emotional labels obtained from combinations of action units (AUs) detected across a video sequence. We pre-train a network with 60.92 hours of unlabeled data, fine-tuning the model for the downstream SER task. The results on the CREMA-D dataset show that the model pre-trained on the proposed domain-specific pre-text tasks significantly improves the precision (up to 5.1%), recall (up to 4.5%), and F1-scores (up to 4.9%) of our SER system. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    The success of supervised learning requires large-scale ground truth labels which are very expensive, time- consuming, or may need special skills to annotate. To address this issue, many self- or un-supervised methods are developed. Unlike most existing self-supervised methods to learn only 2D image features or only 3D point cloud features, this paper presents a novel and effective self-supervised learning approach to jointly learn both 2D image features and 3D point cloud features by exploiting cross-modality and cross-view correspondences without using any human annotated labels. Specifically, 2D image features of rendered images from different views are extracted by a 2D convolutional neural network, and 3D point cloud features are extracted by a graph convolution neural network. Two types of features are fed into a two-layer fully connected neural network to estimate the cross-modality correspondence. The three networks are jointly trained (i.e. cross-modality) by verifying whether two sampled data of different modalities belong to the same object, meanwhile, the 2D convolutional neural network is additionally optimized through minimizing intra-object distance while maximizing inter-object distance of rendered images in different views (i.e. cross-view). The effectiveness of the learned 2D and 3D features is evaluated by transferring them on five different tasks including multi-view 2D shape recognition, 3D shape recognition, multi-view 2D shape retrieval, 3D shape retrieval, and 3D part-segmentation. Extensive evaluations on all the five different tasks across different datasets demonstrate strong generalization and effectiveness of the learned 2D and 3D features by the proposed self-supervised method. 
    more » « less
  4. We introduce caption-guided face recognition (CGFR) as a new framework to improve the performance of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) face recognition (FR) systems. In contrast to combining soft biometrics (e.g., facial marks, gender, and age) with face images, in this work, we use facial descriptions provided by face examiners as a piece of auxiliary information. However, due to the heterogeneity of the modalities, improving the performance by directly fusing the textual and facial features is very challenging, as both lie in different embedding spaces. In this paper, we propose a contextual feature aggregation module (CFAM) that addresses this issue by effectively exploiting the fine-grained word-region interaction and global image-caption association. Specifically, CFAM adopts a self-attention and a cross-attention scheme for improving the intra-modality and inter-modality relationship between the image and textual features, respectively. Additionally, we design a textual feature refinement module (TFRM) that refines the textual features of the pre-trained BERT encoder by updating the contextual embeddings. This module enhances the discriminative power of textual features with a cross-modal projection loss and realigns the word and caption embeddings with visual features by incorporating a visual-semantic alignment loss. We implemented the proposed CGFR framework on two face recognition models (ArcFace and AdaFace) and evaluated its performance on the Multi-Modal CelebA-HQ dataset. Our framework significantly improves the performance of ArcFace in both 1:1 verification and 1:N identification protocol. 
    more » « less
  5. Humans use different modalities, such as speech, text, images, videos, etc., to communicate their intent and goals with teammates. For robots to become better assistants, we aim to endow them with the ability to follow instructions and understand tasks specified by their human partners. Most robotic policy learning methods have focused on one single modality of task specification while ignoring the rich cross-modal information. We present MUTEX, a unified approach to policy learning from multimodal task specifications. It trains a transformer-based architecture to facilitate cross-modal reasoning, combining masked modeling and cross-modal matching objectives in a two-stage training procedure. After training, MUTEX can follow a task specification in any of the six learned modalities (video demonstrations, goal images, text goal descriptions, text instructions, speech goal descriptions, and speech instructions) or a combination of them. We systematically evaluate the benefits of MUTEX in a newly designed dataset with 100 tasks in simulation and 50 tasks in the real world, annotated with multiple instances of task specifications in different modalities, and observe improved performance over methods trained specifically for any single modality. 
    more » « less