Results of two‐dimensional and narrow three‐dimensional (2‐D and 2.5‐D) simulations of a gravity wave (GW) packet localized in altitude and along its propagation direction employing a new, versatile compressible model are described. The simulations explore self‐acceleration and instability dynamics in an idealized atmosphere at rest under mean solar conditions in a domain extending to an altitude of 260 km and 1,800 km horizontally without artificial dissipation. High resolution in the central 2.5‐D domain enables the description of 3‐D instability dynamics accounting for breaking, dissipation, and momentum deposition within the GW packet. 2‐D results describe responses to localized self‐acceleration effects, including generation of secondary GWs (SGWs) at larger scales able to propagate to much higher altitudes. 2.5‐D results exhibit instability forms consistent with previous 3‐D simulations of instability dynamics and cause SGW generation and propagation at smaller spatial scales to weaken significantly compared to the 2‐D results. SGW responses at larger scales are driven primarily by GW/mean flow interactions arising at early stages of the self‐acceleration dynamics prior to strong GW instabilities and dissipation. As a result, they exhibit similar responses in both the 2‐D and 2.5‐D simulations and readily propagate to high altitudes at large distances from the initial GW packet. A companion paper examines these dynamics for an initial GW packet localized in three dimensions and evolving in a representative 3‐D tidal wind field.
Gravity waves (GWs) and their associated multi‐scale dynamics are known to play fundamental roles in energy and momentum transport and deposition processes throughout the atmosphere. We describe an initial machine learning model—the Compressible Atmosphere Model Network (CAM‐Net). CAM‐Net is trained on high‐resolution simulations by the state‐of‐the‐art model Complex Geometry Compressible Atmosphere Model (CGCAM). Two initial applications to a Kelvin‐Helmholtz instability source and mountain wave generation, propagation, breaking, and Secondary GW (SGW) generation in two wind environments are described here. Results show that CAM‐Net can capture the key 2‐D dynamics modeled by CGCAM with high precision. Spectral characteristics of primary and SGWs estimated by CAM‐Net agree well with those from CGCAM. Our results show that CAM‐Net can achieve a several order‐of‐magnitude acceleration relative to CGCAM without sacrificing accuracy and suggests a potential for machine learning to enable efficient and accurate descriptions of primary and secondary GWs in global atmospheric models.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
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- DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Geophysical Research Letters
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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A gravity wave (GW) model that includes influences of temperature variations and large‐scale advection on polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) brightness having variable dependence on particle radius is developed. This Complex Geometry Compressible Atmosphere Model for PMCs (CGCAM‐PMC) is described and applied here for three‐dimensional (3‐D) GW packets undergoing self‐acceleration (SA) dynamics, breaking, momentum deposition, and secondary GW (SGW) generation below and at PMC altitudes. Results reveal that GW packets exhibiting strong SA and instability dynamics can induce significant PMC advection and large‐scale transport, and cause partial or total PMC sublimation. Responses modeled include PMC signatures of GW propagation and SA dynamics, “voids” having diameters of ∼500–1,200 km, and “fronts” with horizontal extents of ∼400–800 km. A number of these features closely resemble PMC imaging by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument aboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite. Specifically, initial CGCAM‐PMC results closely approximate various CIPS images of large voids surrounded by smaller void(s) for which dynamical explanations have not been offered to date. In these cases, the GW and instabilities dynamics of the initial GW packet are responsible for formation of the large void. The smaller void(s) at the trailing edge of a large void is (are) linked to the lower‐ or higher‐altitude SGW generation and primary mean‐flow forcing. We expect an important benefit of such modeling to be the ability to infer local forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) over significant depths when CGCAM‐PMC modeling is able to reasonably replicate PMC responses.
A compressible numerical model is applied for three‐dimensional (3‐D) gravity wave (GW) packets undergoing momentum deposition, self‐acceleration (SA), breaking, and secondary GW (SGW) generation in the presence of highly‐structured environments enabling thermal and/or Doppler ducts, such as a mesospheric inversion layer (MIL), tidal wind (TW), or combination of MIL and TW. Simulations reveal that ducts can strongly modulate GW dynamics. Responses modeled here include reflection, trapping, suppressed transmission, strong local instabilities, reduced SGW generations, higher altitude SGW responses, and induced large‐scale flows. Instabilities that arise in ducts experience strong dissipation after they emerge, while trapped smaller‐amplitude and smaller‐scale GWs can survive in ducts to much later times. Additionally, GW breaking and its associated dynamics enhance the local wind along the GW propagation direction in the ducts, and yield layering in the wind field. However, these dynamics do not yield significant heat transport in the ducts. The failure of GW breaking to induce stratified layers in the temperature field suggests that such heat transport might not be as strong as previously assumed or inferred from observations and theoretical assessments. The present numerical simulations confirm previous finding that MIL generation may not be caused by the breaking of a transient high‐frequency GW packet alone.
A 2D nonlinear, compressible model is used to simulate the acoustic‐gravity wave (AGW, i.e., encompassing the spectrum of acoustic and gravity waves) response to a thunderstorm squall‐line type source. We investigate the primary and secondary neutral AGW response in the thermosphere, consistent with waves that can couple to the F‐region ionospheric plasma, and manifest as Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). We find that primary waves at
z= 240 km altitude have wavelengths and phase speeds in the range 170–270 km, and 180–320 m/s, respectively. The secondary waves generated have wavelengths ranging from ∼100 to 600 km, and phase speeds from 300 to 630 m/s. While there is overlap in the wave spectra, we find that the secondary waves (i.e., those that have been nonlinearly transformed or generated secondarily/subsequently from the primary wave) generally have faster phases than the primary waves. We also assess the notion that waves with fast phase speeds (that exceed proposed theoretical upper limits on passing from the mesosphere to thermosphere) observed at F‐region heights must be secondary waves, for example, those generated in situ by wave breaking in the lower thermosphere, rather than directly propagating primary waves from their sources. We find that primary waves with phase speeds greater than this proposed upper limit can tunnel through a deep portion of the lower/middle atmosphere and emerge as propagating waves in the thermosphere. Therefore, comparing a TID's/GWs phase speed with this upper limit is not a robust method of identifying whether an observed TID originates from a primary versus secondary AGW.
Long‐term efforts have sought to extend global model resolution to smaller scales enabling more accurate descriptions of gravity wave (GW) sources and responses, given their major roles in coupling and variability throughout the atmosphere. Such studies reveal significant improvements accompanying increasing resolution, but no guidance on what is sufficient to approximate reality. We take the opposite approach, using a finite‐volume model solving the Navier‐Stokes equations exactly. The reference simulation addresses mountain wave (MW) generation and responses over the Southern Andes described using isotropic 500 m, central resolution by Fritts et al. (2021),
https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-20-0207.1and Lund et al. (2020), https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-19-0356.1. Reductions of horizontal resolution to 1 and 2 km result in (a) systematic increases in initial MW breaking altitudes, (b) weaker, larger‐scale generation of secondary GWs and acoustic waves accompanying these dynamics, and (c) significantly weaker and less extended responses in the mesosphere in latitude and longitude. Horizontal resolution of 4 km largely suppresses instabilities, but allows weak, sustained mean‐flow interactions. Responses for 8 km resolution are very weak and fail to capture any aspects of the high‐resolution responses. The chosen mean winds allow efficient MW penetration into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, hence only exhibit strong pseudo‐momentum deposition and mean wind decelerations at higher altitudes. A companion paper by Fritts et al. (2022), https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JD036035explores the impacts of decreasing resolution on responses in the thermosphere.