skip to main content

Title: Structural stability and the low‐lying singlet and triplet states of BN ‐ n ‐acenes, n  = 1–7

The chemical stability and the low‐lying singlet and triplet excited states of BN‐n‐acenes (n = 1–7) were studied using single reference and multireference methodologies. From the calculations, descriptors such as the singlet‐triplet splitting, the natural orbital (NO) occupations and aromaticity indexes are used to provide structural and energetic analysis. The boron and nitrogen atoms form an isoelectronic pair of two carbon atoms, which was used for the complete substitution of these units in the acene series. The structural analysis confirms the effects originated from the insertion of a uniform pattern of electronegativity difference within the molecular systems. The covalent bonds tend to be strongly polarized which does not happen in the case of a carbon‐only framework. This effect leads to a charge transfer between neighbor atoms resulting in a more strengthened structure, keeping the aromaticity roughly constant along the chain. The singlet‐triplet splitting also agrees with this stability trend, maintaining a consistent gap value for all molecules. The BN‐n‐acenes molecules possess a ground state with monoconfigurational character indicating their electronic stability. The low‐lying singlet excited states have charge transfer character, which proceeds from nitrogen to boron.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Computational Chemistry
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 755-765
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We explore the photochemistry of polymeric carbon nitride (C 3 N 4 ), an archetypal organic photocatalyst, and derivatives of its structural monomer unit, heptazine (Hz). Through spectroscopic studies and computational analysis, we have observed that Hz derivatives can engage in non-innocent hydrogen bonding interactions with hydroxylic species. The photochemistry of these complexes is influenced by intermolecular nπ*/ππ* mixing of non-bonding orbitals of each component and the relative energy of intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) states. Coupling of the former to the latter appears to facilitate proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), resulting in biradical products. We have also observed that Hz derivatives exhibit an extremely rare inverted singlet/triplet energy splitting (Δ E ST ). In violation of Hund's multiplicity rules, the lowest energy singlet (S 1 ) is stabilized relative to the lowest triplet (T 1 ) electronic excited state. Exploiting this unique inverted Δ E ST character has obvious implications for transformational discoveries in solid-state OLED lighting and photovoltaics. Harnessing this inverted Δ E ST , paired with light-driven intermolecular PCET reactions, may enable molecular transformations relevant for applications ranging from solar energy storage to new classes of non-triplet photoredox catalysts for pharmaceutical development. To this end, we have explored the possibility of optically controlling the photochemistry of Hz derivatives using ultrafast pump–push–probe spectroscopy. In this case, the excited state branching ratios among locally excited states of the chromophore and the reactive intermolecular CT state can be manipulated with an appropriate secondary “push” excitation pulse. These results indicate that we can predictively redirect chemical reactivity with light in this system, which is an avidly sought achievement in the field of photochemistry. Looking forward, we anticipate future opportunities for controlling heptazine photochemistry, including manipulating PCET reactivity with a diverse array of substrates and optically delivering reducing equivalents with, for example, water as a partial source of electrons and protons. Furthermore, we wholly expect that, over the next decade, materials such as Hz derivatives, that exhibit inverted Δ E ST character, will spawn a significant new research effort in the field of thin-film optoelectronics, where controlling recombination via triplet excitonic states can play a critical role in determining device performance. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Exploiting earth-abundant iron-based metal complexes as high-performance photosensitizers demands long-lived electronically excited metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) states, but these species suffer typically from femtosecond timescale charge-transfer (CT)-state quenching by low-lying nonreactive metal-centered (MC) states. Here, we engineer supermolecular Fe(II) chromophores based on the bis(tridentate-ligand)metal(II)-ethyne-(porphinato)zinc(II) conjugated framework, previously shown to give rise to highly delocalized low-lying 3 MLCT states for other Group VIII metal (Ru, Os) complexes. Electronic spectral, potentiometric, and ultrafast pump–probe transient dynamical data demonstrate that a combination of a strong σ-donating tridentate ligand and a (porphinato)zinc(II) moiety with low-lying π*-energy levels, sufficiently destabilize MC states and stabilize supermolecular MLCT states to realize Fe(II) complexes that express 3 MLCT state photophysics reminiscent of their heavy-metal analogs. The resulting Fe(II) chromophore archetype, FeNHCPZn, features a highly polarized CT state having a profoundly extended 3 MLCT lifetime (160 ps), 3 MLCT phosphorescence, and ambient environment stability. Density functional and domain-based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster [DLPNO-CCSD(T)] theory reveal triplet-state wavefunction spatial distributions consistent with electronic spectroscopic and excited-state dynamical data, further underscoring the dramatic Fe metal-to-extended ligand CT character of electronically excited FeNHCPZn. This design further prompts intense panchromatic absorptivity via redistributing high-energy absorptive oscillator strength throughout the visible spectral domain, while maintaining a substantial excited-state oxidation potential for wide-ranging photochemistry––highlighted by the ability of FeNHCPZn to photoinject charges into a SnO 2 /FTO electrode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) architecture. Concepts enumerated herein afford opportunities for replacing traditional rare-metal–based emitters for solar-energy conversion and photoluminescence applications. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Minor structural modifications to the DNA and RNA nucleobases have a significant effect on their excited state dynamics and electronic relaxation pathways. In this study, the excited state dynamics of 7-deazaguanosine and guanosine 5′-monophosphate are investigated in aqueous solution and in a mixture of methanol and water using femtosecond broadband transient absorption spectroscopy following excitation at 267 nm. The transient spectra are collected using photon densities that ensure no parasitic multiphoton-induced signal from solvated electrons. The data can be fit satisfactorily using a two- or three-component kinetic model. By analyzing the results from steady-state, time-resolved, computational calculations, and the methanol–water mixture, the following general relaxation mechanism is proposed for both molecules, Lb → La → 1πσ*(ICT) → S0, where the 1πσ*(ICT) stands for an intramolecular charge transfer excited singlet state with significant πσ* character. In general, longer lifetimes for internal conversion are obtained for 7-deazaguanosine compared to guanosine 5′-monophosphate. Internal conversion of the 1πσ*(ICT) state to the ground state occurs on a similar time scale of a few picoseconds in both molecules. Collectively, the results demonstrate that substitution of a single nitrogen atom for a methine (C–H) group at position seven of the guanine moiety stabilizes the 1ππ* Lb and La states and alters the topology of their potential energy surfaces in such a way that the relaxation dynamics in 7-deazaguanosine are slowed down compared to those in guanosine 5′-monophosphate but not for the internal conversion of 1πσ*(ICT) state to the ground state. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract We discuss peculiar features of electron scattering on the N 2 molecule and the N 2 + ion, that are important for modeling plasmas, Earth’s and other planets’ atmospheres. These features are, among others: the resonant enhancement of the vibrational excitation in the region of the shape resonance around 2.4 eV, the resonant character of some of electronic excitation channels (and high values of these cross sections, both for triplet and singlet states), high cross section for the dissociation into neutrals, high cross sections for elastic scattering (and electronic transitions) on metastable states. For the N 2 + ion we discuss both dissociation and the dissociative ionization, leading to the formation of atoms in excited states, and dissociative recombination which depends strongly on the initial vibrational state of the ion. We conclude that the theory became an indispensable completion of experiments, predicting many of partial cross sections and their physical features. We hope that the data presented will serve to improve models of nitrogen plasmas and atmospheres. Graphical abstract 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Photoinduced electron transfer into mesoporous oxide substrates is well-known to occur efficiently for both singlet and triplet excited states in conventional metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) dyes. However, in all-organic dyes that have the potential for producing two triplet states from one absorbed photon, called singlet fission dyes, the dynamics of electron injection from singlet vs. triplet excited states has not been elucidated. Using applied bias transient absorption spectroscopy with an anthradithiophene-based chromophore ( ADT-COOH ) adsorbed to mesoporous indium tin oxide ( nanoITO ), we modulate the driving force and observe changes in electron injection dynamics. ADT-COOH is known to undergo fast triplet pair formation in solid-state films. We find that the electronic coupling at the interface is roughly one order of magnitude weaker for triplet vs. singlet electron injection, which is potentially related to the highly localized nature of triplets without significant charge-transfer character. Through the use of applied bias on nanoITO : ADT-COOH films, we map the electron injection rate constant dependence on driving force, finding negligible injection from triplets at zero bias due to competing recombination channels. However, at driving forces greater than −0.6 eV, electron injection from the triplet accelerates and clearly produces a trend with increased applied bias that matches predictions from Marcus theory with a metallic acceptor. 
    more » « less