skip to main content

Title: SN 2020bio: A Double-peaked, H-poor Type IIb Supernova with Evidence of Circumstellar Interaction

We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2020bio, a double-peaked Type IIb supernova (SN) discovered within a day of explosion, primarily obtained by Las Cumbres Observatory and Swift. SN 2020bio displays a rapid and long-lasting initial decline throughout the first week of its light curve, similarly to other well-studied Type IIb SNe. This early-time emission is thought to originate from the cooling of the extended outer hydrogen-rich (H-rich) envelope of the progenitor star that is shock heated by the SN explosion. We compare SN 2020bio to a sample of other double-peaked Type IIb SNe in order to investigate its progenitor properties. Analytical model fits to the early-time emission give progenitor radius (≈100–1500R) and H-rich envelope mass (≈0.01–0.5M) estimates that are consistent with other Type IIb SNe. However, SN 2020bio displays several peculiarities, including (1) weak H spectral features indicating a greater amount of mass loss than other Type IIb progenitors; (2) an underluminous secondary light-curve peak that implies a small amount of synthesized56Ni (MNi≈0.02M); and (3) low-luminosity nebular [Oi] and interaction-powered nebular features. These observations are more consistent with a lower-mass progenitor (MZAMS≈ 12M) that was stripped of most of its H-rich envelope before exploding. This study adds to the growing diversity in the observed properties of Type IIb SNe and their progenitors.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Medium: X Size: Article No. 35
["Article No. 35"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present early observations and analysis of the double-peaked Type IIb supernova (SN IIb) SN 2021zby. TESS captured the prominent early shock-cooling peak of SN 2021zby within the first ∼10 days after explosion with a 30 minute cadence. We present optical and near-infrared spectral series of SN 2021zby, including three spectra during the shock-cooling phase. Using a multiband model fit, we find that the inferred properties of its progenitor are consistent with a red supergiant or yellow supergiant, with an envelope mass of ∼0.30–0.65Mand an envelope radius of ∼120–300R. These inferred progenitor properties are similar to those of other SNe IIb with a double-peaked feature, such as SNe 1993J, 2011dh, 2016gkg, and 2017jgh. This study further validates the importance of the high cadence and early coverage in resolving the shape of the shock-cooling light curve, while the multiband observations, particularly UV, are also necessary to fully constrain the progenitor properties.

    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT ASASSN-18am/SN 2018gk is a newly discovered member of the rare group of luminous, hydrogen-rich supernovae (SNe) with a peak absolute magnitude of MV ≈ −20 mag that is in between normal core-collapse SNe and superluminous SNe. These SNe show no prominent spectroscopic signatures of ejecta interacting with circumstellar material (CSM), and their powering mechanism is debated. ASASSN-18am declines extremely rapidly for a Type II SN, with a photospheric-phase decline rate of ∼6.0 mag (100 d)−1. Owing to the weakening of H i and the appearance of He i in its later phases, ASASSN-18am is spectroscopically a Type IIb SN with a partially stripped envelope. However, its photometric and spectroscopic evolution shows significant differences from typical SNe IIb. Using a radiative diffusion model, we find that the light curve requires a high synthesized 56Ni mass $M_{\rm Ni} \sim 0.4\, \rm {M_{\odot }}$ and ejecta with high kinetic energy Ekin = (7–10) × 1051 erg. Introducing a magnetar central engine still requires $M_{\rm Ni} \sim 0.3\, \rm {M_{\odot }}$ and Ekin = 3 × 1051 erg. The high 56Ni mass is consistent with strong iron-group nebular lines in its spectra, which are also similar to several SNe Ic-BL with high 56Ni yields. The earliest spectrum shows ‘flash ionization’ features, from which we estimate a mass-loss rate of $\dot{M}\approx 2\times 10^{-4} \, \rm \rm {M_{\odot }}\,yr^{-1}$. This wind density is too low to power the luminous light curve by ejecta–CSM interaction. We measure expansion velocities as high as 17 000 $\rm {\, km\, s^{-1}}$ for Hα, which is remarkably high compared to other SNe II. We estimate an oxygen core mass of 1.8–3.4 M⊙ using the [O i] luminosity measured from a nebular-phase spectrum, implying a progenitor with a zero-age main-sequence mass of 19–26 M⊙. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract SN 2018ivc is an unusual Type II supernova (SN II). It is a variant of SNe IIL, which might represent a transitional case between SNe IIP with a massive H-rich envelope and SNe IIb with only a small amount of the H-rich envelope. However, SN 2018ivc shows an optical light-curve evolution more complicated than that of canonical SNe IIL. In this paper, we present the results of prompt follow-up observations of SN 2018ivc with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Its synchrotron emission is similar to that of SN IIb 1993J, suggesting that it is intrinsically an SN IIb–like explosion of an He star with a modest (∼0.5–1 M ⊙ ) extended H-rich envelope. Its radio, optical, and X-ray light curves are explained primarily by the interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar material (CSM); we thus suggest that it is a rare example (and the first involving the “canonical” SN IIb ejecta) for which the multiwavelength emission is powered mainly by the SN–CSM interaction. The inner CSM density, reflecting the progenitor activity in the final decade, is comparable to that of SN IIb 2013cu, which shows a flash spectral feature. The outer CSM density, and therefore the mass-loss rate in the final ∼200 yr, is higher than that of SN 1993J by a factor of ∼5. We suggest that SN 2018ivc represents a missing link between SNe IIP and SNe IIb/Ib/Ic in the binary evolution scenario. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    SN 2018aoz is a Type Ia SN with aB-band plateau and excess emission in infant-phase light curves ≲1 day after the first light, evidencing an over-density of surface iron-peak elements as shown in our previous study. Here, we advance the constraints on the nature and origin of SN 2018aoz based on its evolution until the nebular phase. Near-peak spectroscopic features show that the SN is intermediate between two subtypes of normal Type Ia: core normal and broad line. The excess emission may be attributable to the radioactive decay of surface iron-peak elements as well as the interaction of ejecta with either the binary companion or a small torus of circumstellar material. Nebular-phase limits on Hαand Heifavor a white dwarf companion, consistent with the small companion size constrained by the low early SN luminosity, while the absence of [Oi] and Heidisfavors a violent merger of the progenitor. Of the two main explosion mechanisms proposed to explain the distribution of surface iron-peak elements in SN 2018aoz, the asymmetric Chandrasekhar-mass explosion is less consistent with the progenitor constraints and the observed blueshifts of nebular-phase [Feii] and [Niii]. The helium-shell double-detonation explosion is compatible with the observed lack of C spectral features, but current 1D models are incompatible with the infant-phase excess emission,BmaxVmaxcolor, and weak strength of nebular-phase [Caii]. Although the explosion processes of SN 2018aoz still need to be more precisely understood, the same processes could produce a significant fraction of Type Ia SNe that appear to be normal after ∼1 day.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The fate of stars in the zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) range ≈8–12Mis unclear. They could evolve to form white dwarfs or explode as electron-capture supernovae (SNe) or iron core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). Even though the initial mass function indicates that this mass range should account for over 40% of all CCSN progenitors, few have been observationally confirmed, likely due to the faintness and rapid evolution of some of these transients. In this paper, we present a sample of nine Ca-rich/O-poor Type IIb SNe detected by the Zwicky Transient Facility with progenitors likely in this mass range. These sources have a [Caii]λλ7291, 7324/[Oi]λλ6300, 6364 flux ratio of ≳2 in their nebular spectra. Comparing the measured [Oi] luminosity (≲1039erg s−1) and derived oxygen mass (≈0.01M) with theoretical models, we infer that the progenitor ZAMS mass for these explosions is less than 12M. The ejecta properties (Mej≲ 1MandEkin∼ 1050erg) are also consistent. The low ejecta mass of these sources indicates a class of strongly-stripped SNe that is a transition between the regular stripped-envelope SNe and ultra-stripped SNe. The progenitor could be stripped by a main-sequence companion and result in the formation of a neutron star−main sequence binary. Such binaries have been suggested to be progenitors of neutron star−white dwarf systems that could merge within a Hubble time and be detectable with LISA.

    more » « less