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Title: Incomplete reproductive isolation and low genetic differentiation despite floral divergence across varying geographic scales in Castilleja

Divergence depends on the strength of selection and frequency of gene flow between taxa, while reproductive isolation relies on mating barriers and geographic distance. Less is known about how these processes interact at early stages of speciation. Here, we compared population‐level differentiation in floral phenotype and genetic sequence variation among recently divergedCastillejato explore patterns of diversification under different scenarios of reproductive isolation.


Using target enrichment enabled by the Angiosperms353 probe set, we assessed genetic distance among 50 populations of fourCastillejaspecies. We investigated whether patterns of genetic divergence are explained by floral trait variation or geographic distance in two focal groups: the widespreadC. sessilifloraand the more restrictedC. purpureaspecies complex.


We document thatC. sessilifloraand theC. purpureacomplex are characterized by high diversity in floral color across varying geographic scales. Despite phenotypic divergence, groups were not well supported in phylogenetic analyses, and little genetic differentiation was found across targeted Angiosperms353 loci. Nonetheless, a principal coordinate analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed differentiation withinC. sessilifloraacross floral morphs and geography and less differentiation among species of theC. purpureacomplex.


Patterns of genetic distance inC. sessiliflorasuggest species cohesion maintained over long distances despite variation in floral traits. In theC. purpureacomplex, divergence in floral color across narrow geographic clines may be driven by recent selection on floral color. These contrasting patterns of floral and genetic differentiation reveal that divergence can arise via multiple eco‐evolutionary paths.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
American Journal of Botany
Medium: X Size: p. 1270-1288
["p. 1270-1288"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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