Rainbands that migrate northward from spring to summer are persistent features of the East Asian summer monsoon. This study employs a machine learning algorithm to identify individual East Asian rainbands from May to August in the 6-hourly ERA-Interim reanalysis product and captures rainband events during these months for the period 1979–2018. The median duration of rainband events at any location in East Asia is 12 h, and the centroids of these rainbands move northward continuously from approximately 28°N in late May to approximately 33°N in July, instead of making jumps between quasi-stationary periods. Whereas the length and overall area of the rainbands grow monotonically from May to June, the intensity of the rainfall within the rainband dips slightly in early June before it peaks in late June. We find that extratropical northerly winds on all pressure levels over East China are the most important anomalous flow accompanying the rainband events. The anomalous northerlies augment climatological background northerlies in bringing low moist static energy air and thus generate the front associated with the rainband. Persistent lower-tropospheric southerly winds bring in moisture that feeds the rainband and are enhanced a few days prior to rainband events, but they are not directly tied to the actual rainband formation. The background northerlies could originate as part of the Rossby waves resulting from the jet stream interaction with the Tibetan Plateau. The ageostrophic circulation in the jet entrance region peaks in May and weakens in June and July and does not prove to be critical to the formation of the rainbands.
Atmospheric river (AR) and its impact on monsoon rainfall in East Asia are investigated by considering their month‐to‐month variations during the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). The AR in the EASM, defined as an anomalously enhanced plume‐like water vapor transport, frequently forms over eastern China, Korea and western Japan. However, its characteristics vary from the early (June‐July) to the late (August‐September) period of the EASM. In the early EASM, AR is typically characterized by a quasi‐stationary monsoon southwesterly along the northern boundary of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which is further intensified by a migrating extratropical cyclone in the north. In contrast, the late‐EASM AR, which is less frequent than the early EASM AR, is primarily organized by a migrating extratropical cyclone. The quasi‐stationary monsoon southwesterly is less influential as the northern boundary of the WNPSH shifts northward, being decoupled from the subtropical ocean. Both the early‐ and late‐EASM ARs contribute substantially to monsoon rainfall, especially to heavy rainfall events. In the early EASM, 35%–70% of total rainfall amount and 60%–80% of heavy rainfall events in eastern China, Korea and western Japan are associated with AR. Although weakened, AR‐related rainfall is still significant in the late EASM in Korea and western Japan. These results indicate that AR is a key ingredient of EASM precipitation and its subseasonal variations should be taken into account to better understand and predict AR‐related extreme precipitation in East Asia.more » « less
- Award ID(s):
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- DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
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- Journal Name:
- Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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