skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on August 1, 2024

Title: The Pressure‐ and Temperature‐Dependence of Thermal Pressurization in Localized Faults
Key Points Changes in hydraulic diffusivity and pressurization factor during thermal pressurization (TP) balance each other in low permeability and low porosity fault rocks Hydraulic diffusional length scales as time 0.7 when considering TP parameters that depend on temperature and pressure The constant case model should be considered with ambient initial conditions and not time‐averaged ones  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT Frictional heating during earthquake rupture raises the fault-zone fluid pressure, which affects dynamic rupture and seismic radiation. Here, we investigate two key parameters governing thermal pressurization of pore fluids – hydraulic diffusivity and shear-zone half-width – and their effects on earthquake rupture dynamics, kinematic source properties, and ground motions. We conduct 3D strike-slip dynamic rupture simulations assuming a rate-and-state dependent friction law with strong velocity weakening coupled to thermal-pressurization of pore fluids. Dynamic rupture evolution and ground shaking are densely evaluated across the fault and Earth’s surface to analyze the variations of rupture parameters (slip, peak slip rate, rupture speed, and rise time), correlations among rupture parameters, and variability of peak ground velocity. Our simulations reveal how variations in thermal-pressurization affect earthquake rupture properties. We find that the mean slip and rise time decrease with increasing hydraulic diffusivity, whereas mean rupture speed and peak slip-rate remain almost constant. Mean slip, peak slip-rate, and rupture speed decrease with increasing shear-zone half-width, whereas mean rise time increases. Shear-zone half-width distinctly affects the correlation between rupture parameters, especially for parameter pairs (slip, rupture speed), (peak slip-rate, rupture speed), and (rupture speed, rise time). Hydraulic diffusivity has negligible effects on these correlations. Variations in shear-zone half-width primarily impact rupture speed, which then may affect other rupture parameters. We find a negative correlation between slip and peak slip-rate, unlike simpler dynamic rupture models. Mean peak ground velocities decrease faster with increasing shear-zone half-width than with increasing hydraulic diffusivity, whereas ground-motion variability is similarly affected by both the parameters. Our results show that shear-zone half-width affects rupture dynamics, kinematic rupture properties, and ground shaking more strongly than hydraulic diffusivity. We interpret the importance of shear-zone half-width based on the characteristic time of diffusion. Our findings may inform pseudodynamic rupture generators and guide future studies on how to account for thermal-pressurization effects. 
    more » « less
  2. Temperature variations in low permeable soil (e.g. clay) induce pore pressure, which is known as thermal pressurization. Previous research showed that thermal pressurization highly depends on thermal pressurization coefficient. This coefficient depends on the soil type and changes with temperature due to temperature dependency of thermal expansion coefficient of water. Thermal pressurization is often investigated through thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) numerical modeling. THM process, with respect to thermal loading, has been examined in the literature to justify the field observations by incorporating advanced thermo-mechanical constitutive models. However, result of numerical simulations using advanced thermo-elastoplastic models still show some discrepancies with experimental and field observations. In this study, the assessment of thermal pressurization in Boom clay is scrutinized through employing a relatively simple while practical thermo-poroelastic finite element model with careful consideration of the temperature-dependent thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical properties of the medium and saturating fluid (i.e. water). The numerical model is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics and the results of the numerical simulations are compared and validated with the ATLAS project, a large-scale experimental facility in Belgium. The results confirm that thermal and hydraulic coupling parameters are the key factors to change thermal pressurization. 
    more » « less
  3. In both biological and engineered systems, functioning at peak power output for prolonged periods of time requires thermoregulation. Here, we report a soft hydrogel-based actuator that can maintain stable body temperatures via autonomic perspiration. Using multimaterial stereolithography, we three-dimensionally print finger-like fluidic elastomer actuators having a poly- N -isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAm) body capped with a microporous (~200 micrometers) polyacrylamide (PAAm) dorsal layer. The chemomechanical response of these hydrogel materials is such that, at low temperatures (<30°C), the pores are sufficiently closed to allow for pressurization and actuation, whereas at elevated temperatures (>30°C), the pores dilate to enable localized perspiration in the hydraulic actuator. Such sweating actuators exhibit a 600% enhancement in cooling rate (i.e., 39.1°C minute −1 ) over similar non-sweating devices. Combining multiple finger actuators into a single device yields soft robotic grippers capable of both mechanically and thermally manipulating various heated objects. The measured thermoregulatory performance of these sweating actuators (~107 watts kilogram −1 ) greatly exceeds the evaporative cooling capacity found in the best animal systems (~35 watts kilogram −1 ) at the cost of a temporary decrease in actuation efficiency. 
    more » « less
  4. This work describes an efficient means to adjust the power level of an axial piston hydraulic pump/motor. Conventionally, the displacement of a piston pump is varied by changing the stroke length of each piston. Since the losses do not decrease proportionally to the displacement, the efficiency is low at low displacements. Here, with partial-stroke piston pressurization (PSPP), displacement is varied by changing the portion of the piston stroke over which the piston is subjected to high pressure. Since leakage and friction losses drop as the displacement is decreased, higher efficiency is achieved at low displacements with PSPP. While other systems have implemented PSPP with electric or cam-actuated valves, the pump described in this paper is unique in implementing PSPP by way of a simple, robust hydro-mechanical valve system. Experimental testing of a prototype PSPP pump/motor shows that the full load efficiency is maintained even at low displacements. 
    more » « less
  5. McCartney, J.S. ; Tomac, I. (Ed.)
    Thermal pore pressurization in soil media has been investigated for the past few decades. It has been shown that temperature variations may significantly affect thermal pore pressure in clay soils confined deep into the ground. Moreover, thermal loading may lead to stress change and thermal deformation. Thermo-poroelastic and advance thermo-poroelastoplastic constitutive models have been formulated and incorporated numerically to simulate the thermo-hydro-mechanical process. However, the accurate response of soil media during THM process has not been completely understood. Although numerical modelling reasonably predicts the experimental observations, they still could not be used to completely justify the field observations. In this study, the main features of the thermo-poroelastic model are incorporated in a thermo-poroelastoplastic constitutive model (ACMEG-T) to further investigate the effect of different thermal and hydraulic properties on thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) response of the soil media. 
    more » « less