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Title: Almost extreme waves
Numerically computed with high accuracy are periodic travelling waves at the free surface of a two-dimensional, infinitely deep, and constant vorticity flow of an incompressible inviscid fluid, under gravity, without the effects of surface tension. Of particular interest is the angle the fluid surface of an almost extreme wave makes with the horizontal. Numerically found are the following. (i) There is a boundary layer where the angle rises sharply from $0^\circ$ at the crest to a local maximum, which converges to $30.3787\ldots ^\circ$ , independently of the vorticity, as the amplitude increases towards that of the extreme wave, which displays a corner at the crest with a $30^\circ$ angle. (ii) There is an outer region where the angle descends to $0^\circ$ at the trough for negative vorticity, while it rises to a maximum, greater than $30^\circ$ , and then falls sharply to $0^\circ$ at the trough for large positive vorticity. (iii) There is a transition region where the angle oscillates about $30^\circ$ , resembling the Gibbs phenomenon. Numerical evidence suggests that the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations become independent of the vorticity as the wave profile approaches the extreme form.  more » « less
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Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Medium: X
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National Science Foundation
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