skip to main content

Title: Revealing Electrical‐Poling‐Induced Polarization Potential in Hybrid Perovskite Photodetectors

Despite recent rapid advances in metal halide perovskites for use in optoelectronics, the fundamental understanding of the electrical‐poling‐induced ion migration, accounting for many unusual attributes and thus performance in perovskite‐based devices, remain comparatively elusive. Herein, the electrical‐poling‐promoted polarization potential is reported for rendering hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite photodetectors with high photocurrent and fast response time, displaying a tenfold enhancement in the photocurrent and a twofold decrease in the response time after an external electric field poling. First, a robust meniscus‐assisted solution‐printing strategy is employed to facilitate the oriented perovskite crystals over a large area. Subsequently, the electrical poling invokes the ion migration within perovskite crystals, thus inducing a polarization potential, as substantiated by the surface potential change assessed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. Such electrical‐poling‐induced polarization potential is responsible for the markedly enhanced photocurrent and largely shortened response time. This work presents new insights into the electrical‐poling‐triggered ion migration and, in turn, polarization potential as well as into the implication of the latter for optoelectronic devices with greater performance. As such, the utilization of ion‐migration‐produced polarization potential may represent an important endeavor toward a wide range of high‐performance perovskite‐based photodetectors, solar cells, transistors, scintillators, etc.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
1727313 1914562
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Ruddleson–Popper (RP) perovskites have emerged as a class of material inheriting the superior optoelectronic properties of two materials: perovskites and 2D materials. The large exciton binding energy and natural quantum well structure not only make these materials ideal platforms to study light–matter interactions but also render them suitable for fabrication of various functional optoelectronic devices. Nanoscale structuring and morphology control have led to semiconductors with enhanced functionalities. Nanowires of semiconducting materials are extensively used for important applications like lasing and sensing. However, catalyst and template‐free scalable growth of nanowires of 2D perovskites has remained elusive. In this paper, a facile approach for morphology‐controlled growth of nanowires of 2D perovskite, (BA)2PbI4, is demonstrated. Additionally, it is shown that the photoluminescence (PL) from the nanowires is highly polarized with a polarization ratio as large as ≈0.73, which is one of the largest reported for perovskites. It is further shown that the photocurrent from the hybrid nanowire/graphene device is also sensitive to the polarization of the incident light with the photocurrent anisotropy ratio of ≈3.62 (much larger than the previously reported value of 2.68 for perovskites), thus demonstrating the potential of these nanowires as highly efficient photodetectors for polarized light.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Typical lead‐based perovskites solar cells show an onset of photogeneration around 800 nm, leaving plenty of spectral loss in the near‐infrared (NIR). Extending light absorption beyond 800 nm into the NIR should increase photocurrent generation and further improve photovoltaic efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, a simple and facile approach is reported to incorporate a NIR‐chromophore that is also a Lewis‐base into perovskite absorbers to broaden their photoresponse and increase their photovoltaic efficiency. Compared with pristine PSCs without such an organic chromophore, these solar cells generate photocurrent in the NIR beyond the band edge of the perovskite active layer alone. Given the Lewis‐basic nature of the organic semiconductor, its addition to the photoactive layer also effectively passivates perovskite defects. These films thus exhibit significantly reduced trap densities, enhanced hole and electron mobilities, and suppressed illumination‐induced ion migration. As a consequence, perovskite solar cells with organic chromophore exhibit an enhanced efficiency of 21.6%, and substantively improved operational stability under continuous one‐sun illumination. The results demonstrate the potential generalizability of directly incorporating a multifunctional organic semiconductor that both extends light absorption and passivates surface traps in perovskite active layers to yield highly efficient and stable NIR‐harvesting PSCs.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Room‐temperature solution‐processed flexible photodetectors with spectral response from 300 to 2600 nm are reported. Solution‐processed polymeric thin film with transparency ranging from 300 to 7000 nm and superior electrical conductivity as the transparent electrode is reported. Solution‐processed flexible broadband photodetectors with a “vertical” device structure incorporating a perovskite/PbSe quantum dot bilayer thin film based on the above solution‐processed transparent polymeric electrode are demonstrated. The utilization of perovskite/PbSe quantum dot bilayer thin film as the photoactive layer extends spectral response to infrared region and boosts photocurrent densities in both visible and infrared regions through the trap‐assisted photomultiplication effect. Operated at room temperature and under an external bias of ‐1 V, the solution‐processed flexible photodetectors exhibit over 230 mA W‐1responsivity, over 1011 cm Hz1/2/W photodetectivity from 300 to 2600 nm and ≈70 dB linear dynamic ranges. It is also found that the solution‐processed flexible broadband photodetectors exhibit fast response time and excellent flexibility. All these results demonstrate that this work develop a facile approach to realize room‐temperature operated ultrasensitive solution‐processed flexible broadband photodetectors with “vertical” device structure through solution‐processed transparent polymeric electrode.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    The recently proposed concept of graphene photodetectors offers remarkable properties such as unprecedented compactness, ultrabroadband detection, and an ultrafast response speed. However, owing to the low optical absorption of pristine monolayer graphene, the intrinsically low responsivity of graphene photodetectors significantly hinders the development of practical devices. To address this issue, numerous efforts have thus far been made to enhance the light–graphene interaction using plasmonic structures. These approaches, however, can be significantly advanced by leveraging the other critical aspect of graphene photoresponsivity enhancement—electrical junction control. It has been reported that the dominant photocarrier generation mechanism in graphene is the photothermoelectric (PTE) effect. Thus, the two energy conversion mechanisms involved in the graphene photodetection process are light-to-heat and heat-to-electricity conversions. In this work, we propose a meticulously designed device architecture to simultaneously enhance the two conversion efficiencies. Specifically, a gap plasmon structure is used to absorb a major portion of the incident light to induce localized heating, and a pair of split gates is used to produce a p-n junction in graphene to augment the PTE current generation. The gap plasmon structure and the split gates are designed to share common key components so that the proposed device architecture concurrently realizes both optical and electrical enhancements. We experimentally demonstrate the dominance of the PTE effect in graphene photocurrent generation and observe a 25-fold increase in the generated photocurrent compared to the un-enhanced cases. While further photocurrent enhancement can be achieved by applying a DC bias, the proposed device concept shows vast potential for practical applications.

    more » « less
  5. Efficient charge separation and transportation are key factors that determine the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water‐splitting efficiency. Here, a simultaneous enhancement of charge separation and hole transportation on the basis of ferroelectric polarization in TiO2–SrTiO3core–shell nanowires (NWs) is reported. The SrTiO3shell with controllable thicknesses generates a considerable spontaneous polarization, which effectively tunes the electrical band bending of TiO2. Combined with its intrinsically high charge mobility, the ferroelectric SrTiO3thin shell significantly improves the charge‐separation efficiency (ηseparation) with minimized influence on the hole‐migration property of TiO2photoelectrodes, leading to a drastically increased photocurrent density (Jph). Specifically, the 10 nm‐thick SrTiO3shell yields the highestJphand ηseparationof 1.43 mA cm−2and 87.7% at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, respectively, corresponding to 83% and 79% improvements compared with those of pristine TiO2NWs. The PEC performance can be further manipulated by thermal treatment, and the control of SrTiO3film thicknesses and electric poling directions. This work suggests a material with combined ferroelectric and semiconducting features could be a promising solution for advancing PEC systems by concurrently promoting the charge‐separation and hole‐transportation properties.

    more » « less