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Title: A Deep Learning‐Based Approach for Modeling the Dynamics of AMPERE Birkeland Currents

The existence of Birkeland magnetic field‐aligned current (FAC) system was proposed more than a century ago, and it has been of immense interest for investigating the nature of solar wind‐magnetosphere‐ionosphere coupling ever since. In this paper, we present the first application of deep learning architecture for modeling the Birkeland currents using data from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). The model uses a 1‐hr time history of several different parameters such as interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind, and geomagnetic and solar indices as inputs to determine the global distribution of Birkeland currents in the Northern Hemisphere. We present a comparison between our model and bin‐averaged statistical patterns under steady IMF conditions and also when the IMF is variable. Our deep learning model shows good agreement with the bin‐averaged patterns, capturing several prominent large‐scale features such as the Regions 1 and 2 FACs, the NBZ current system, and the cusp currents along with their seasonal variations. However, when IMF and solar wind conditions are not stable, our model provides a more accurate view of the time‐dependent evolution of Birkeland currents. The reconfiguration of the FACs following an abrupt change in IMF orientation can be traced in its details. The magnitude of FACs is found to evolve with e‐folding times that vary with season and MLT. When IMF Bz turns southward after a prolonged northward orientation, NBZ currents decay exponentially with an e‐folding time of25 min, whereas Region 1 currents grow with an e‐folding time of 6–20 min depending on the MLT.

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DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
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Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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