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Title: Influence of size‐classified and slightly soluble mineral additives on hydration of tricalcium silicate

Early‐age hydration of cement is enhanced by slightly soluble mineral additives (ie, fillers, such as quartz and limestone). However, few studies have attempted to systematically compare the effects of different fillers on cementitious hydration rates, and none have quantified such effects using fillers with comparable, size‐classified particle size distributions (PSDs). This study examines the influence of size‐classified fillers [ie, limestone (CaCO3), quartz (SiO2), corundum (Al2O3), and rutile (TiO2)] on early‐age hydration kinetics of tricalcium silicate (C3S) using a combination of experimental methods, while also employing a modified phase boundary and nucleation and growth model. In prior studies, wherein fillers with broad PSDs were used, it has been reported that between quartz and limestone, the latter is a superior filler due to its ability to partake in anion‐exchange reactions with C‐S‐H. Contrary to prior investigations, this study shows that when size‐classified andarea matchedfillers are used—which, essentially, eliminate degrees of freedom associated with surface area and agglomeration of filler particulates—the filler effect of quartz is broadly similar to that of limestone as well as rutile. Results also show that unlike quartz, limestone, and rutile—which enhance C3S hydration kinetics—corundum suppresses hydration of C3S during the first several hours after mixing. Such deceleration in C3S hydration kinetics is attributed to the adsorption of aluminate anions—released from corundum's dissolution—onto anhydrous particulates’ surfaces, which impedes both the dissolution of C3S and heterogeneous nucleation of C‐S‐H.

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Award ID(s):
1661609 1932690
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 2764-2779
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). 
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