The two cultivated allopolyploid cottons,
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The two cultivated allopolyploid cottons,
Gossypium hirsutumand Gossypium barbadense, represent a remarkable example of parallel independent domestication, both involving dramatic morphological transformations under selection from wild perennial plants to annualized row crops. Deep resequencing of 643 newly sampled accessions spanning the wild‐to‐domesticated continuum of both species, and their allopolyploid relatives, are combined with existing data to resolve species relationships and elucidate multiple aspects of their parallel domestication. It is confirmed that wild G. hirsutumand G. barbadensewere initially domesticated in the Yucatan Peninsula and NW South America, respectively, and subsequently spread under domestication over 4000–8000 years to encompass most of the American tropics. A robust phylogenomic analysis of infraspecific relationships in each species is presented, quantify genetic diversity in both, and describe genetic bottlenecks associated with domestication and subsequent diffusion. As these species became sympatric over the last several millennia, pervasive genome‐wide bidirectional introgression occurred, often with striking asymmetries involving the two co‐resident genomes of these allopolyploids. Diversity scans revealed genomic regions and genes unknowingly targeted during domestication and additional subgenomic asymmetries. These analyses provide a comprehensive depiction of the origin, divergence, and adaptation of cotton, and serve as a rich resource for cotton improvement.
Abstract A-genome diploid wheats represent the earliest domesticated and cultivated wheat species in the Fertile Crescent and include the donor of the wheat A sub-genome. The A-genome species encompass the cultivated einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. subsp. monococcum), wild einkorn (T. monococcum L. subsp. aegilopoides (Link) Thell.), and Triticum urartu. We evaluated the collection of 930 accessions in the Wheat Genetics Resource Center (WGRC) using genotyping by sequencing and identified 13,860 curated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Genomic analysis detected misclassified and genetically identical (>99%) accessions, with most of the identical accessions originating from the same or nearby locations. About 56% (n = 520) of the WGRC A-genome species collections were genetically identical, supporting the need for genomic characterization for effective curation and maintenance of these collections. Population structure analysis confirmed the morphology-based classifications of the accessions and reflected the species geographic distributions. We also showed that T. urartu is the closest A-genome diploid to the A-subgenome in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through phylogenetic analysis. Population analysis within the wild einkorn group showed three genetically distinct clusters, which corresponded with wild einkorn races α, β, and γ described previously. The T. monococcum genome-wide FST scan identified candidate genomic regions harboring a domestication selection signature at the Non-brittle rachis 1 (Btr1) locus on the short arm of chromosome 3Am at ∼70 Mb. We established an A-genome core set (79 accessions) based on allelic diversity, geographical distribution, and available phenotypic data. The individual species core set maintained at least 79% of allelic variants in the A-genome collection and constituted a valuable genetic resource to improve wheat and domesticated einkorn in breeding programs.more » « less
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We identify two gene pools of cultivated mango, representing Indian and Southeast Asian germplasm. We found no significant genetic bottleneck associated with the introduction of mango into new regions of the world. By contrast, we show that mango populations in introduced regions have elevated levels of diversity.
Our results suggest that mango has a more complex history of domestication than previously supposed, perhaps including multiple domestication events, hybridization and regional selection. Our work has direct implications for mango breeding and genebank management, and also builds on recent efforts to understand how woody perennial crops respond to domestication.
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