Species interactions shape the evolution of traits, life histories and the pattern of speciation. What is less clear is whether certain types of species interaction are more or less likely to lead to phenotypic divergence among species. We used the brood pollination mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths to test how mutualistic (pollination) and antagonistic (oviposition) traits differ in the propensity to increase phenotypic divergence among pollinator moths. We measured traits of the tentacular mouthparts, structures used by females to actively pollinate flowers, as well as ovipositor traits to examine differences in the rate of evolution of these two suites of traits among pollinator species. Morphological analyses revealed two distinct groups of moths based on ovipositor morphology, but no such groupings were identified for tentacle morphology, even for moths that pollinated distantly related yuccas. In addition, ovipositor traits evolved at significantly faster rates than tentacular traits. These results support theoretical work suggesting that antagonism is more likely than mutualism to lead to phenotypic divergence.
Variation in pollen‐ovule ratios is thought to reflect the degree of pollen transfer efficiency—the more efficient the process, the fewer pollen grains needed. Few studies have directly examined the relationship between pollen‐ovule ratio and pollen transfer efficiency. For active pollination in the pollination brood mutualisms of yuccas and yucca moths, figs and fig wasps, senita and senita moths, and leafflowers and leafflower moths, pollinators purposefully collect pollen and place it directly on the stigmatic surface of conspecific flowers. The tight coupling of insect reproductive interests with pollination of the flowers in which larvae develop ensures that pollination is highly efficient.
We used the multiple evolutionary transitions between passive pollination and more efficient active pollination to test if increased pollen transfer efficiency leads to reduced pollen‐ovule ratios. We collected pollen and ovule data from a suite of plant species from each of the pollination brood mutualisms and used phylogenetically controlled tests and sister‐group comparisons to examine whether the shift to active pollination resulted in reduced pollen‐ovule ratios.
Across all transitions between passive and active pollination in plants, actively pollinated plants had significantly lower pollen‐ovule ratios than closely related passively pollinated taxa. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons demonstrated that actively pollinated plant species had an average 76% reduction in the pollen‐ovule ratio.
The results for active pollination systems support the general utility of pollen‐ovule ratios as indicators of pollination efficiency and the central importance of pollen transfer efficiency in the evolution of pollen‐ovule ratio.
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- American Journal of Botany
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- p. 164-170
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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