skip to main content


Title: Stacks 2: Analytical methods for paired‐end sequencing improve RADseq‐based population genomics
Abstract

For half a century population genetics studies have put type II restriction endonucleases to work. Now, coupled with massively‐parallel, short‐read sequencing, the family of RAD protocols that wields these enzymes has generated vast genetic knowledge from the natural world. Here, we describe the first software natively capable of using paired‐end sequencing to derive short contigs from de novo RAD data. Stacks version 2 employs a de Bruijn graph assembler to build and connect contigs from forward and reverse reads for each de novo RAD locus, which it then uses as a reference for read alignments. The new architecture allows all the individuals in a metapopulation to be considered at the same time as each RAD locus is processed. This enables a Bayesian genotype caller to provide precise SNPs, and a robust algorithm to phase those SNPs into long haplotypes, generating RAD loci that are 400–800 bp in length. To prove its recall and precision, we tested the software with simulated data and compared reference‐aligned and de novo analyses of three empirical data sets. Our study shows that the latest version of Stacks is highly accurate and outperforms other software in assembling and genotyping paired‐end de novo data sets.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1645087
NSF-PAR ID:
10459395
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley-Blackwell
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Molecular Ecology
Volume:
28
Issue:
21
ISSN:
0962-1083
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 4737-4754
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Advances in DNA sequencing have made it feasible to gather genomic data for non‐model organisms and large sets of individuals, often using methods for sequencing subsets of the genome. Several of these methods sequence DNA associated with endonuclease restriction sites (various RAD and GBS methods). For use in taxa without a reference genome, these methods rely onde novoassembly of fragments in the sequencing library. Many of the software options available for this application were originally developed for other assembly types and we do not know their accuracy for reduced representation libraries. To address this important knowledge gap, we simulated data from theArabidopsis thalianaandHomo sapiensgenomes and comparedde novoassemblies by six software programs that are commonly used or promising for this purpose (ABySS,CD‐HIT,Stacks,Stacks2,VelvetandVSEARCH). We simulated different mutation rates and types of mutations, and then applied the six assemblers to the simulated data sets, varying assembly parameters. We found substantial variation in software performance across simulations and parameter settings.ABySSfailed to recover any true genome fragments, andVelvetandVSEARCHperformed poorly for most simulations.StacksandStacks2produced accurate assemblies of simulations containing SNPs, but the addition of insertion and deletion mutations decreased their performance.CD‐HITwas the only assembler that consistently recovered a high proportion of true genome fragments. Here, we demonstrate the substantial difference in the accuracy of assemblies from different software programs and the importance of comparing assemblies that result from different parameter settings.

     
    more » « less
  2. Holland, J. (Ed.)
    Abstract

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is native to western North America. It grows in a wide range of environmental conditions and is an important timber tree. Although there are several studies on the gene expression responses of Douglas-fir to abiotic cues, the absence of high-quality transcriptome and genome data is a barrier to further investigation. Like for most conifers, the available transcriptome and genome reference dataset for Douglas-fir remains fragmented and requires refinement. We aimed to generate a highly accurate, and complete reference transcriptome and genome annotation. We deep-sequenced the transcriptome of Douglas-fir needles from seedlings that were grown under nonstress control conditions or a combination of heat and drought stress conditions using long-read (LR) and short-read (SR) sequencing platforms. We used 2 computational approaches, namely de novo and genome-guided LR transcriptome assembly. Using the LR de novo assembly, we identified 1.3X more high-quality transcripts, 1.85X more “complete” genes, and 2.7X more functionally annotated genes compared to the genome-guided assembly approach. We predicted 666 long noncoding RNAs and 12,778 unique protein-coding transcripts including 2,016 putative transcription factors. We leveraged the LR de novo assembled transcriptome with paired-end SR and a published single-end SR transcriptome to generate an improved genome annotation. This was conducted with BRAKER2 and refined based on functional annotation, repetitive content, and transcriptome alignment. This high-quality genome annotation has 51,419 unique gene models derived from 322,631 initial predictions. Overall, our informatics approach provides a new reference Douglas-fir transcriptome assembly and genome annotation with considerably improved completeness and functional annotation.

     
    more » « less
  3. Background

    Metagenomics has transformed our understanding of microbial diversity across ecosystems, with recent advances enablingde novoassembly of genomes from metagenomes. These metagenome-assembled genomes are critical to provide ecological, evolutionary, and metabolic context for all the microbes and viruses yet to be cultivated. Metagenomes can now be generated from nanogram to subnanogram amounts of DNA. However, these libraries require several rounds of PCR amplification before sequencing, and recent data suggest these typically yield smaller and more fragmented assemblies than regular metagenomes.

    Methods

    Here we evaluatede novoassembly methods of 169 PCR-amplified metagenomes, including 25 for which an unamplified counterpart is available, to optimize specific assembly approaches for PCR-amplified libraries. We first evaluated coverage bias by mapping reads from PCR-amplified metagenomes onto reference contigs obtained from unamplified metagenomes of the same samples. Then, we compared different assembly pipelines in terms of assembly size (number of bp in contigs ≥ 10 kb) and error rates to evaluate which are the best suited for PCR-amplified metagenomes.

    Results

    Read mapping analyses revealed that the depth of coverage within individual genomes is significantly more uneven in PCR-amplified datasets versus unamplified metagenomes, with regions of high depth of coverage enriched in short inserts. This enrichment scales with the number of PCR cycles performed, and is presumably due to preferential amplification of short inserts. Standard assembly pipelines are confounded by this type of coverage unevenness, so we evaluated other assembly options to mitigate these issues. We found that a pipeline combining read deduplication and an assembly algorithm originally designed to recover genomes from libraries generated after whole genome amplification (single-cell SPAdes) frequently improved assembly of contigs ≥10 kb by 10 to 100-fold for low input metagenomes.

    Conclusions

    PCR-amplified metagenomes have enabled scientists to explore communities traditionally challenging to describe, including some with extremely low biomass or from which DNA is particularly difficult to extract. Here we show that a modified assembly pipeline can lead to an improvedde novogenome assembly from PCR-amplified datasets, and enables a better genome recovery from low input metagenomes.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Long-read sequencing is revolutionizingde-novogenome assemblies, with continued advancements making it more readily available for previously understudied, non-model organisms. Stony corals are one such example, with long-readde-novogenome assemblies now starting to be publicly available, opening the door for a wide array of ‘omics-based research. Here we present a newde-novogenome assembly for the endangered Caribbean star coral,Orbicella faveolata, using PacBio circular consensus reads. Our genome assembly improved the contiguity (51 versus 1,933 contigs) and complete and single copy BUSCO orthologs (93.6% versus 85.3%, database metazoa_odb10), compared to the currently available reference genome generated using short-read methodologies. Our newde-novoassembled genome also showed comparable quality metrics to other coral long-read genomes. Telomeric repeat analysis identified putative chromosomes in our scaffolded assembly, with these repeats at either one, or both ends, of scaffolded contigs. We identified 32,172 protein coding genes in our assembly through use of long-read RNA sequencing (ISO-seq) of additionalO. faveolatafragments exposed to a range of abiotic and biotic treatments, and publicly available short-read RNA-seq data. With anthropogenic influences heavily affectingO. faveolata, as well as itsincreasing incorporation into reef restoration activities, this updated genome resource can be used for population genomics and other ‘omics analyses to aid in the conservation of this species.

     
    more » « less
  5. INTRODUCTION Transposable elements (TEs), repeat expansions, and repeat-mediated structural rearrangements play key roles in chromosome structure and species evolution, contribute to human genetic variation, and substantially influence human health through copy number variants, structural variants, insertions, deletions, and alterations to gene transcription and splicing. Despite their formative role in genome stability, repetitive regions have been relegated to gaps and collapsed regions in human genome reference GRCh38 owing to the technological limitations during its development. The lack of linear sequence in these regions, particularly in centromeres, resulted in the inability to fully explore the repeat content of the human genome in the context of both local and regional chromosomal environments. RATIONALE Long-read sequencing supported the complete, telomere-to-telomere (T2T) assembly of the pseudo-haploid human cell line CHM13. This resource affords a genome-scale assessment of all human repetitive sequences, including TEs and previously unknown repeats and satellites, both within and outside of gaps and collapsed regions. Additionally, a complete genome enables the opportunity to explore the epigenetic and transcriptional profiles of these elements that are fundamental to our understanding of chromosome structure, function, and evolution. Comparative analyses reveal modes of repeat divergence, evolution, and expansion or contraction with locus-level resolution. RESULTS We implemented a comprehensive repeat annotation workflow using previously known human repeats and de novo repeat modeling followed by manual curation, including assessing overlaps with gene annotations, segmental duplications, tandem repeats, and annotated repeats. Using this method, we developed an updated catalog of human repetitive sequences and refined previous repeat annotations. We discovered 43 previously unknown repeats and repeat variants and characterized 19 complex, composite repetitive structures, which often carry genes, across T2T-CHM13. Using precision nuclear run-on sequencing (PRO-seq) and CpG methylated sites generated from Oxford Nanopore Technologies long-read sequencing data, we assessed RNA polymerase engagement across retroelements genome-wide, revealing correlations between nascent transcription, sequence divergence, CpG density, and methylation. These analyses were extended to evaluate RNA polymerase occupancy for all repeats, including high-density satellite repeats that reside in previously inaccessible centromeric regions of all human chromosomes. Moreover, using both mapping-dependent and mapping-independent approaches across early developmental stages and a complete cell cycle time series, we found that engaged RNA polymerase across satellites is low; in contrast, TE transcription is abundant and serves as a boundary for changes in CpG methylation and centromere substructure. Together, these data reveal the dynamic relationship between transcriptionally active retroelement subclasses and DNA methylation, as well as potential mechanisms for the derivation and evolution of new repeat families and composite elements. Focusing on the emerging T2T-level assembly of the HG002 X chromosome, we reveal that a high level of repeat variation likely exists across the human population, including composite element copy numbers that affect gene copy number. Additionally, we highlight the impact of repeats on the structural diversity of the genome, revealing repeat expansions with extreme copy number differences between humans and primates while also providing high-confidence annotations of retroelement transduction events. CONCLUSION The comprehensive repeat annotations and updated repeat models described herein serve as a resource for expanding the compendium of human genome sequences and reveal the impact of specific repeats on the human genome. In developing this resource, we provide a methodological framework for assessing repeat variation within and between human genomes. The exhaustive assessment of the transcriptional landscape of repeats, at both the genome scale and locally, such as within centromeres, sets the stage for functional studies to disentangle the role transcription plays in the mechanisms essential for genome stability and chromosome segregation. Finally, our work demonstrates the need to increase efforts toward achieving T2T-level assemblies for nonhuman primates and other species to fully understand the complexity and impact of repeat-derived genomic innovations that define primate lineages, including humans. Telomere-to-telomere assembly of CHM13 supports repeat annotations and discoveries. The human reference T2T-CHM13 filled gaps and corrected collapsed regions (triangles) in GRCh38. Combining long read–based methylation calls, PRO-seq, and multilevel computational methods, we provide a compendium of human repeats, define retroelement expression and methylation profiles, and delineate locus-specific sites of nascent transcription genome-wide, including previously inaccessible centromeres. SINE, short interspersed element; SVA, SINE–variable number tandem repeat– Alu ; LINE, long interspersed element; LTR, long terminal repeat; TSS, transcription start site; pA, xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. 
    more » « less