skip to main content

Title: Functional Maps Representation On Product Manifolds

We consider the tasks of representing, analysing and manipulating maps between shapes. We model maps as densities over the product manifold of the input shapes; these densities can be treated as scalar functions and therefore are manipulable using the language of signal processing on manifolds. Being a manifold itself, the product space endows the set of maps with a geometry of its own, which we exploit to define map operations in the spectral domain; we also derive relationships with other existing representations (soft maps and functional maps). To apply these ideas in practice, we discretize product manifolds and their Laplace–Beltrami operators, and we introduce localized spectral analysis of the product manifold as a novel tool for map processing. Our framework applies to maps defined between and across 2D and 3D shapes without requiring special adjustment, and it can be implemented efficiently with simple operations on sparse matrices.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Computer Graphics Forum
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 678-689
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Biodiversity studies rely heavily on estimates of species' distributions often obtained through ecological niche modelling. Numerous software packages exist that allow users to model ecological niches using machine learning and statistical methods. However, no existing package with a graphical user interface allows users to perform model calibration and selection based on convex forms such as ellipsoids, which may match fundamental ecological niche shapes better, incorporating tools for exploring, modelling, and evaluating niches and distributions that are intuitive for both novice and proficient users.

    Here we describe anrpackage, NicheToolBox(ntbox), that allows users to conduct all processing steps involved in ecological niche modelling: downloading and curating occurrence data, obtaining and transforming environmental data layers, selecting environmental variables, exploring relationships between geographic and environmental spaces, calibrating and selecting ellipsoid models, evaluating models using binomial and partial ROC tests, assessing extrapolation risk, and performing geographic information system operations via a graphical user interface. A summary of the entire workflow is produced for use as a stand‐alone algorithm or as part of research reports.

    The method is explained in detail and tested via modelling the threatened feline speciesLeopardus wiedii. Georeferenced occurrence data for this species are queried to display both point occurrences and the IUCN extent of occurrence polygon (IUCN, 2007). This information is used to illustrate tools available for accessing, processing and exploring biodiversity data (e.g. number of occurrences and chronology of collecting) and transforming environmental data (e.g. a summary PCA for 19 bioclimatic layers). Visualizations of three‐dimensional ecological niches modelled as minimum volume ellipsoids are developed with ancillary statistics. This niche model is then projected to geographic space, to represent a corresponding potential suitability map.

    Usingntboxallows a fast and straightforward means by which to retrieve and manipulate occurrence and environmental data, which can then be implemented in model calibration, projection and evaluation for assessing distributions of species in geographic space and their corresponding environmental combinations.

    more » « less
  2. Given only a finite collection of points sampled from a Riemannian manifold embedded in a Euclidean space, in this paper we propose a new method to numerically solve elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) supplemented with boundary conditions. Since the construction of triangulations on unknown manifolds can be both difficult and expensive, both in terms of computational and data requirements, our goal is to solve these problems without a triangulation. Instead, we rely only on using the sample points to define quadrature formulas on the unknown manifold. Our main tool is the diffusion maps algorithm. We re-analyze this well-known method in a variational sense for manifolds with boundary. Our main result is that the variational diffusion maps graph Laplacian is a consistent estimator of the Dirichlet energy on the manifold. This improves upon previous results and provides a rigorous justification of the well-known relationship between diffusion maps and the Neumann eigenvalue problem. Moreover, using semigeodesic coordinates we derive the first uniform asymptotic expansion of the diffusion maps kernel integral operator for manifolds with boundary. This expansion relies on a novel lemma which relates the extrinsic Euclidean distance to the coordinate norm in a normal collar of the boundary. We then use a recently developed method of estimating the distance to boundary function (notice that the boundary location is assumed to be unknown) to construct a consistent estimator for boundary integrals. Finally, by combining these various estimators, we illustrate how to impose Dirichlet and Neumann conditions for some common PDEs based on the Laplacian. Several numerical examples illustrate our theoretical findings. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Curvature is a fundamental geometric characteristic of smooth spaces. In recent years different notions of curvature have been developed for combinatorial discrete objects such as graphs. However, the connections between such discrete notions of curvature and their smooth counterparts remain lurking and moot. In particular, it is not rigorously known if any notion of graph curvature converges to any traditional notion of curvature of smooth space. Here we prove that in proper settings the Ollivier–Ricci curvature of random geometric graphs in Riemannian manifolds converges to the Ricci curvature of the manifold. This is the first rigorous result linking curvature of random graphs to curvature of smooth spaces. Our results hold for different notions of graph distances, including the rescaled shortest path distance, and for different graph densities. Here the scaling of the average degree, as a function of the graph size, can range from nearly logarithmic to nearly linear.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract We introduce a contact invariant in the bordered sutured Heegaard Floer homology of a three-manifold with boundary. The input for the invariant is a contact manifold $(M, \xi , \mathcal {F})$ whose convex boundary is equipped with a signed singular foliation $\mathcal {F}$ closely related to the characteristic foliation. Such a manifold admits a family of foliated open book decompositions classified by a Giroux correspondence, as described in [LV20]. We use a special class of foliated open books to construct admissible bordered sutured Heegaard diagrams and identify well-defined classes $c_D$ and $c_A$ in the corresponding bordered sutured modules. Foliated open books exhibit user-friendly gluing behavior, and we show that the pairing on invariants induced by gluing compatible foliated open books recovers the Heegaard Floer contact invariant for closed contact manifolds. We also consider a natural map associated to forgetting the foliation $\mathcal {F}$ in favor of the dividing set and show that it maps the bordered sutured invariant to the contact invariant of a sutured manifold defined by Honda–Kazez–Matić. 
    more » « less
  5. Purpose AlSi10Mg alloy is commonly used in laser powder bed fusion due to its printability, relatively high thermal conductivity, low density and good mechanical properties. However, the thermal conductivity of as-built materials as a function of processing (energy density, laser power, laser scanning speed, support structure) and build orientation, are not well explored in the literature. This study aims to elucidate the relationship between processing, microstructure, and thermal conductivity. Design/methodology/approach The thermal conductivity of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) AlSi10Mg samples are investigated by the flash diffusivity and frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) techniques. Thermal conductivities are linked to the microstructure of L-PBF AlSi10Mg, which changes with processing conditions. The through-plane exceeded the in-plane thermal conductivity for all energy densities. A co-located thermal conductivity map by frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) and crystallographic grain orientation map by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to investigate the effect of microstructure on thermal conductivity. Findings The highest through-plane thermal conductivity (136 ± 2 W/m-K) was achieved at 59 J/mm 3 and exceeded the values reported previously. The in-plane thermal conductivity peaked at 117 ± 2 W/m-K at 50 J/mm 3 . The trend of thermal conductivity reducing with energy density at similar porosity was primarily due to the reduced grain size producing more Al-Si interfaces that pose thermal resistance. At these interfaces, thermal energy must convert from electrons in the aluminum to phonons in the silicon. The co-located thermal conductivity and crystallographic grain orientation maps confirmed that larger colonies of columnar grains have higher thermal conductivity compared to smaller columnar grains. Practical implications The thermal properties of AlSi10Mg are crucial to heat transfer applications including additively manufactured heatsinks, cold plates, vapor chambers, heat pipes, enclosures and heat exchangers. Additionally, thermal-based nondestructive testing methods require these properties for applications such as defect detection and simulation of L-PBF processes. Industrial standards for L-PBF processes and components can use the data for thermal applications. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to make coupled thermal conductivity maps that were matched to microstructure for L-PBF AlSi10Mg aluminum alloy. This was achieved by a unique in-house thermal conductivity mapping setup and relating the data to local SEM EBSD maps. This provides the first conclusive proof that larger grain sizes can achieve higher thermal conductivity for this processing method and material system. This study also shows that control of the solidification can result in higher thermal conductivity. It was also the first to find that the build substrate (with or without support) has a large effect on thermal conductivity. 
    more » « less