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Title: User Identification Utilizing Minimal Eye-Gaze Features in Virtual Reality Applications
Emerging Virtual Reality (VR) displays with embedded eye trackers are currently becoming a commodity hardware (e.g., HTC Vive Pro Eye). Eye-tracking data can be utilized for several purposes, including gaze monitoring, privacy protection, and user authentication/identification. Identifying users is an integral part of many applications due to security and privacy concerns. In this paper, we explore methods and eye-tracking features that can be used to identify users. Prior VR researchers explored machine learning on motion-based data (such as body motion, head tracking, eye tracking, and hand tracking data) to identify users. Such systems usually require an explicit VR task and many features to train the machine learning model for user identification. We propose a system to identify users utilizing minimal eye-gaze-based features without designing any identification-specific tasks. We collected gaze data from an educational VR application and tested our system with two machine learning (ML) models, random forest (RF) and k-nearest-neighbors (kNN), and two deep learning (DL) models: convolutional neural networks (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM). Our results show that ML and DL models could identify users with over 98% accuracy with only six simple eye-gaze features. We discuss our results, their implications on security and privacy, and the limitations of our work.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1815976
NSF-PAR ID:
10465173
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Virtual Worlds
Volume:
1
Issue:
1
ISSN:
2813-2084
Page Range / eLocation ID:
42 to 61
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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