skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on June 4, 2024

Title: Deep Unfolding-Enabled Hybrid Beamforming Design for mmWave Massive MIMO Systems
Hybrid beamforming (HBF) is a key enabler for millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications systems, but HBF optimizations are often non-convex and of large dimension. In this paper, we propose an efficient deep unfolding-based HBF scheme, referred to as ManNet-HBF, that approximately maximizes the system spectral efficiency (SE). It first factorizes the optimal digital beamformer into analog and digital terms, and then reformulates the resultant matrix factorization problem as an equivalent maximum-likelihood problem, whose analog beamforming solution is vectorized and estimated efficiently with ManNet, a lightweight deep neural network. Numerical results verify that the proposed ManNet-HBF approach has near-optimal performance comparable to or better than conventional model-based counterparts, with very low complexity and a fast run time. For example, in a simulation with 128 transmit antennas, it attains 98.62% the SE of the Riemannian manifold scheme but 13250 times faster.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2225575
NSF-PAR ID:
10465508
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proc. ICASSP 2023 - 2023 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 5
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Millimeter wave (mmW) communications is viewed as the key enabler of 5G cellular networks due to vast spectrum availability that could boost peak rate and capacity. Due to increased propagation loss in mmW band, transceivers with massive antenna array are required to meet a link budget, but their power consumption and cost become limiting factors for commercial systems. Radio designs based on hybrid digital and analog array architectures and the usage of radio frequency (RF) signal processing via phase shifters have emerged as potential solutions to improve radio energy efficiency and deliver performances close to the conventional digital antenna arrays. In this paper, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art mmW massive antenna array designs and comparison among three array architectures, namely digital array, partially-connected hybrid array (sub-array), and fully-connected hybrid array. The comparison of performance, power, and area for these three architectures is performed for three representative 5G downlink use cases, which cover a range of pre-beamforming signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR) and multiplexing regimes. This is the first study to comprehensively model and quantitatively analyze all design aspects and criteria including: 1) optimal linear precoder, 2) impact of quantization error in digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and phase shifters, 3) RF signal distribution network, 4) power and area estimation based on state-of-the-art mmW circuits including baseband digital precoding, digital signal distribution network, high-speed DACs, oscillators, mixers, phase shifters, RF signal distribution network, and power amplifiers. Our simulation results show that the fully-digital array architecture is the most power and area efficient compared against optimized designs for sub-array and hybrid array architectures. Our analysis shows that digital array architecture benefits greatly from multi-user multiplexing. The analysis also reveals that sub-array architecture performance is limited by reduced beamforming gain due to array partitioning, while the system bottleneck of the fully-connected hybrid architecture is the excessively complicated and power hungry RF signal distribution network. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    This paper presents a two-layer RF/analog weighting MIMO transceiver that comprises fully-connected (FC) multi-stream beamforming tiles in the RF-domain first layer, followed by a fully connected analog- or digital-domain baseband layer. The architecture mitigates the complexity versus spectral-efficiency tradeoffs of existing hybrid MIMO architectures and enables MIMO stream/user scalability, superior energy-efficiency, and spatial-processing flexibility. Moreover, multi-layer architectures with FC tiles inherently enable the co-existence of MIMO with carrier-aggregation and full-duplex beamforming. A compact, reconfigurable bidirectional circuit architecture is introduced, including a new Cartesian-combining/splitting beamforming receiver/transmitter, dual-band bidirectional beamforming network, dual-band frequency translation chains, and baseband Cartesian beamforming with an improved programmable gain amplifier design. A 28/37 GHz band, two-layer, eight-element, four-stream (with two FC-tiles) hybrid MIMO transceiver prototype is designed in 65-nm CMOS to demonstrate the above features. The prototype achieves accurate beam/null-steering capability, excellent area/power efficiency, and state-of-the-art TX/RX mode performance in two simultaneous bands while demonstrating multi-antenna (up to eight) multi-stream (up to four) over-the-air spatial multiplexing operation using proposed energy-efficient two-layer hybrid beamforming scheme. 
    more » « less
  3. For 5G it will be important to leverage the available millimeter wave spectrum. To achieve an approximately omni- directional coverage with a similar effective antenna aperture compared to state-of-the-art cellular systems, an antenna array is required at both the mobile and basestation. Due to the large bandwidth and inefficient amplifiers available in CMOS for mmWave, the analog front-end of the receiver with a large number of antennas becomes especially power hungry. Two main solutions exist to reduce the power consumption: hybrid beam forming and digital beam forming with low resolution Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs). In this work we compare the spectral and energy efficiency of both systems under practical system constraints. We consider the effects of channel estimation, transmitter impairments and multiple simultaneous users for a wideband multipath model. Our power consumption model considers components reported in literature at 60 GHz. In contrast to many other works we also consider the correlation of the quantization error, and generalize the modeling of it to non- uniform quantizers and different quantizers at each antenna. The result shows that as the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) gets larger the ADC resolution achieving the optimal energy efficiency gets also larger. The energy efficiency peaks for 5 bit resolution at high SNR, since due to other limiting factors the achievable rate almost saturates at this resolution. We also show that in the multi- user scenario digital beamforming is in any case more energy efficient than hybrid beamforming. In addition we show that if mixed ADC resolutions are used we can achieve any desired trade-off between power consumption and rate close to those achieved with only one ADC resolution. 
    more » « less
  4. The increased power consumption of high-resolution data converters at higher carrier frequencies and larger bandwidths is becoming a bottleneck for communication systems. In this paper, we consider a fully digital base station equipped with 1-bit analog-to-digital (in uplink) and digital-to-analog (in downlink) converters on each radio frequency chain. The base station communicates with multiple single antenna users with individual SINR constraints. We first establish the uplink downlink duality principle under 1-bit hardware constraints under an uncorrelated quantization noise assumption. We then present a linear solution to the multi-user downlink beamforming problem based on the uplink downlink duality principle. The proposed solution takes into account the hardware constraints and jointly optimizes the downlink beamformers and the power allocated to each user. Optimized dithering obtained by adding dummy users to the true system users ensures that the uncorrelated quantization noise assumption is true under realistic settings. Detailed simulations carried out using 3GPP channel models generated from Quadriga show that our proposed solution outperforms state of the art solutions in terms of the ergodic sum and minimum rate especially when the number of users is large. We also demonstrate that the proposed solution significantly reduces the performance gap from non-linear solutions in terms of the uncoded bit error rate at a fraction of the computational complexity. 
    more » « less
  5. Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) systems rely on narrow- beams to cope with the severe signal attenuation in the mm- wave frequency band. However, susceptibility to beam mis- alignment due to mobility or blockage requires the use of beam- alignment schemes, with huge cost in terms of overhead and use of system resources. In this paper, a beam-alignment scheme is proposed based on Bayesian multi-armed bandits, with the goal to maximize the alignment probability and the data-communication throughput. A Bayesian approach is proposed, by considering the state as a posterior distribution over angles of arrival (AoA) and of departure (AoD), given the history of feedback signaling and of beam pairs scanned by the base-station (BS) and the user- end (UE). A simplified sufficient statistic for optimal control is identified, in the form of preference of BS-UE beam pairs. By bounding a value function, the second-best preference policy is formulated, which strikes an optimal balance between exploration and exploitation by selecting the beam pair with the current second-best preference. Through Monte-Carlo simulation with analog beamforming, the superior performance of the second- best preference policy is demonstrated in comparison to existing schemes based on first-best preference, linear Thompson sampling, and upper confidence bounds, with up to 7%, 10% and 30% improvements in alignment probability, respectively. 
    more » « less