skip to main content


Title: Effect of MoO 3 buffer layer on the electronic structure of Al–BP interface
Abstract The interfacial modification effect of the molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ) buffer layer inserted between Al and black phosphorus (BP) was investigated with photoemission spectroscopy. The results show that MoO 3 buffer layer can effectively prevent the destruction of the outermost BP lattice by Al thermal deposition and change the interface electronic structure between Al and BP. At the MoO 3 /BP interface, there is an interface dipole pointing from MoO 3 to BP. During the metal deposition process, an interfacial chemical reaction between Al and MoO 3 was found. These observations would provide insight for fabricating high-performance BP-based devices.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1903962
NSF-PAR ID:
10466091
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume:
55
Issue:
36
ISSN:
0022-3727
Page Range / eLocation ID:
364005
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. A thin layer of Al 2 O 3 was employed as an interfacial layer between surface conductive hydrogen-terminated (H-terminated) diamond and MoO 3 to increase the distance between the hole accumulation layer in diamond and negatively charged states in the acceptor layer and, thus, reduce the Coulomb scattering and increase the hole mobility. The valence band offsets are found to be 2.7 and 3.1 eV for Al 2 O 3 /H-terminated diamond and MoO 3 /H-terminated diamond, respectively. Compared to the MoO 3 /H-terminated diamond structure, a higher hole mobility was achieved with Al 2 O 3 inserted as an interface layer. This work provides a strategy to achieve increased hole mobility of surface conductive diamond by using optimal interlayer along with high high electron affinity surface acceptor materials. 
    more » « less
  2. Ever-increasing demands for energy, particularly being environmentally friendly have promoted the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy.1Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), arguably the most well-studied energy storage system, have dominated the energy market since their advent in the 1990s.2However, challenging issues regarding safety, supply of lithium, and high price of lithium resources limit the further advancement of LIBs for large-scale energy storage applications.3Therefore, attention is being concentrated on an alternative electrochemical energy storage device that features high safety, low cost, and long cycle life. Rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) is considered one of the most promising alternative energy storage systems due to the high theoretical energy and power densities where the multiple electrons (Zn2+) . In addition, aqueous ZIBs are safer due to non-flammable electrolyte (e.g., typically aqueous solution) and can be manufactured since they can be assembled in ambient air conditions.4As an essential component in aqueous Zn-based batteries, the Zn metal anode generally suffers from the growth of dendrites, which would affect battery performance in several ways. Second, the led by the loose structure of Zn dendrite may reduce the coulombic efficiency and shorten the battery lifespan.5

    Several approaches were suggested to improve the electrochemical stability of ZIBs, such as implementing an interfacial buffer layer that separates the active Zn from the bulk electrolyte.6However, the and thick thickness of the conventional Zn metal foils remain a critical challenge in this field, which may diminish the energy density of the battery drastically. According to a theretical calculation, the thickness of a Zn metal anode with an areal capacity of 1 mAh cm-2is about 1.7 μm. However, existing extrusion-based fabrication technologies are not capable of downscaling the thickness Zn metal foils below 20 μm.

    Herein, we demonstrate a thickness controllable coating approach to fabricate an ultrathin Zn metal anode as well as a thin dielectric oxide separator. First, a 1.7 μm Zn layer was uniformly thermally evaporated onto a Cu foil. Then, Al2O3, the separator was deposited through sputtering on the Zn layer to a thickness of 10 nm. The inert and high hardness Al2O3layer is expected to lower the polarization and restrain the growth of Zn dendrites. Atomic force microscopy was employed to evaluate the roughness of the surface of the deposited Zn and Al2O3/Zn anode structures. Long-term cycling stability was gauged under the symmetrical cells at 0.5 mA cm-2for 1 mAh cm-2. Then the fabricated Zn anode was paired with MnO2as a full cell for further electrochemical performance testing. To investigate the evolution of the interface between the Zn anode and the electrolyte, a home-developed in-situ optical observation battery cage was employed to record and compare the process of Zn deposition on the anodes of the Al2O3/Zn (demonstrated in this study) and the procured thick Zn anode. The surface morphology of the two Zn anodes after circulation was characterized and compared through scanning electron microscopy. The tunable ultrathin Zn metal anode with enhanced anode stability provides a pathway for future high-energy-density Zn-ion batteries.

    Obama, B., The irreversible momentum of clean energy.Science2017,355(6321), 126-129.

    Goodenough, J. B.; Park, K. S., The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.J Am Chem Soc2013,135(4), 1167-76.

    Li, C.; Xie, X.; Liang, S.; Zhou, J., Issues and Future Perspective on Zinc Metal Anode for Rechargeable Aqueous Zinc‐ion Batteries.Energy & Environmental Materials2020,3(2), 146-159.

    Jia, H.; Wang, Z.; Tawiah, B.; Wang, Y.; Chan, C.-Y.; Fei, B.; Pan, F., Recent advances in zinc anodes for high-performance aqueous Zn-ion batteries.Nano Energy2020,70.

    Yang, J.; Yin, B.; Sun, Y.; Pan, H.; Sun, W.; Jia, B.; Zhang, S.; Ma, T., Zinc Anode for Mild Aqueous Zinc-Ion Batteries: Challenges, Strategies, and Perspectives.Nanomicro Lett2022,14(1), 42.

    Yang, Q.; Li, Q.; Liu, Z.; Wang, D.; Guo, Y.; Li, X.; Tang, Y.; Li, H.; Dong, B.; Zhi, C., Dendrites in Zn-Based Batteries.Adv Mater2020,32(48), e2001854.

    Acknowledgment

    This work was partially supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Award No. ECCS-1931088. S.L. and H.W.S. acknowledge the support from the Improvement of Measurement Standards and Technology for Mechanical Metrology (Grant No. 22011044) by KRISS.

    Figure 1

     

    more » « less
  3. The modification by molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) buffer layer on the electronic structure between Co and black phosphorus (BP) was investigated with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the MoO3 buffer layer could effectively prevent the destruction of the outermost BP lattice during the Co deposition, with the symmetry of the lattice remaining maintained. There is a noticeable interfacial charge transfer in addition to the chemical reaction between Co and MoO3. The growth pattern of Co deposited onto the MoO3/BP film is the island growth mode. The observations reveal the significance of a MoO3 buffer layer on the electronic structure between Co and black phosphorus and provide help for the design of high-performance Co/BP-based spintronic devices. 
    more » « less
  4. Over the two decades, amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) and their thin film transistor (TFT) channel application have been intensely explored to realize high performance, transparent and flexible displays due to their high field effect mobility (μFE=5-20 cm2/Vs), visible range optical transparency, and low temperature processability (25-300 °C).[1-2] The metastable amorphous phase is to be maintained during operation by the addition of Zn and additional third cation species (e.g., Ga, Hf, or Al) as an amorphous phase stabilizer.[3-5] To limit TFT off-state currents, a thin channel layer (10-20 nm) was employed for InZnO (IZO)-based TFTs, or third cations were added to suppress carrier generations in the TFT channel. To resolve bias stress-induced instabilities in TFT performance, approaches to employ defect passivation layers or enhance channel/dielectric interfacial compatibility were demonstrated.[6-7] Metallization contact is also a dominating factor that determines the performance of TFTs. Particularly, it has been reported that high electrical contact resistance significantly sacrifices drain bias applied to the channel, which leads to undesirable power loss during TFT operation and issues for the measurement of TFT field effect mobilities. [2, 8] However, only a few reports that suggest strategies to enhance contact behaviors are available in the literature. Furthermore, the previous approaches (1) require an additional fabrication complexity due to the use of additional treatments at relatively harsh conditions such as UV, plasma, or high temperatures, and (2) may lead to adverse effects on the channel material attributed to the chemical incompatibility between dissimilar materials, and exposures to harsh environments. Therefore, a simple and easy but effective buffer strategy, which does not require any additional process complexities and not sacrifice chemical compatibility, needs to be established to mitigate the contact issues and therefore achieve high performance and low power consumption AOS TFTs. The present study aims to demonstrate an approach utilizing an interfacial buffer layer, which is compositionally homogeneous to the channel to better align work functions between channel and metallization without a significant fabrication complexity and harsh treatment conditions. Photoelectron spectroscopic measurements reveal that the conducting IZO buffer, of which the work function (Φ) is 4.37 eV, relaxes a relatively large Φ difference between channel IZO (Φ=4.81 eV) and Ti (Φ=4.2-4.3 eV) metallization. The buffer is found to lower the energy barrier for charge carriers at the source to reach the effective channel region near the dielectric. In addition, the higher carrier density of the buffer and favorable chemical compatibility with the channel (compositionally the same) further contribute to a significant reduction in specific contact resistance as much as more than 2.5 orders of magnitude. The improved contact and carrier supply performance from the source to the channel lead to an enhanced field effect mobility of up to 56.49 cm2/Vs and a threshold voltage of 1.18 V, compared to 13.41 cm2/Vs and 7.44 V of IZO TFTs without a buffer. The present work is unique in that an approach to lower the potential barrier between the source and the effective channel region (located near the channel/dielectric interface, behaving similar to a buried-channel MOSFET [9]) by introducing a contact buffer layer that enhances the field effect mobility and facilitates carrier supply from the source to the effective channel region. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract Hf 0.5 Zr 0.5 O 2 (HZO) thin films are promising candidates for non-volatile memory and other related applications due to their demonstrated ferroelectricity at the nanoscale and compatibility with Si processing. However, one reason that HZO has not been fully scaled into industrial applications is due to its deleterious wake-up and fatigue behavior which leads to an inconsistent remanent polarization during cycling. In this study, we explore an interfacial engineering strategy in which we insert 1 nm Al 2 O 3 interlayers at either the top or bottom HZO/TiN interface of sequentially deposited metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors. By inserting an interfacial layer while limiting exposure to the ambient environment, we successfully introduce a protective passivating layer of Al 2 O 3 that provides excess oxygen to mitigate vacancy formation at the interface. We report that TiN/HZO/TiN capacitors with a 1 nm Al 2 O 3 at the top interface demonstrate a higher remanent polarization (2P r ∼ 42 μ C cm −2 ) and endurance limit beyond 10 8 cycles at a cycling field amplitude of 3.5 MV cm −1 . We use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction to elucidate the origin of enhanced endurance and leakage properties in capacitors with an inserted 1 nm Al 2 O 3 layer. We demonstrate that the use of Al 2 O 3 as a passivating dielectric, coupled with sequential ALD fabrication, is an effective means of interfacial engineering and enhances the performance of ferroelectric HZO devices. 
    more » « less