skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on October 1, 2024

Title: CGBA: Curvature-aware Geometric Black-box Attack
Decision-based black-box attacks often necessitate a large number of queries to craft an adversarial example. Moreover, decision-based attacks based on querying boundary points in the estimated normal vector direction often suffer from inefficiency and convergence issues. In this paper, we propose a novel query-efficient \b curvature-aware \b geometric decision-based \b black-box \b attack (CGBA) that conducts boundary search along a semicircular path on a restricted 2D plane to ensure finding a boundary point successfully irrespective of the boundary curvature. While the proposed CGBA attack can work effectively for an arbitrary decision boundary, it is particularly efficient in exploiting the low curvature to craft high-quality adversarial examples, which is widely seen and experimentally verified in commonly used classifiers under non-targeted attacks. In contrast, the decision boundaries often exhibit higher curvature under targeted attacks. Thus, we develop a new query-efficient variant, CGBA-H, that is adapted for the targeted attack. In addition, we further design an algorithm to obtain a better initial boundary point at the expense of some extra queries, which considerably enhances the performance of the targeted attack. Extensive experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of our proposed methods against some well-known classifiers on the ImageNet and CIFAR10 datasets, demonstrating the superiority of CGBA and CGBA-H over state-of-the-art non-targeted and targeted attacks, respectively.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1909644 2024688 2013451 1822477
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)
Date Published:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    As machine learning is deployed in more settings, including in security-sensitive applications such as malware detection, the risks posed by adversarial examples that fool machine-learning classifiers have become magnified. Black-box attacks are especially dangerous, as they only require the attacker to have the ability to query the target model and observe the labels it returns, without knowing anything else about the model. Current black-box attacks either have low success rates, require a high number of queries, produce adversarial images that are easily distinguishable from their sources, or are not flexible in controlling the outcome of the attack. In this paper, we present AdversarialPSO, (Code available: a black-box attack that uses few queries to create adversarial examples with high success rates. AdversarialPSO is based on Particle Swarm Optimization, a gradient-free evolutionary search algorithm, with special adaptations to make it effective for the black-box setting. It is flexible in balancing the number of queries submitted to the target against the quality of the adversarial examples. We evaluated AdversarialPSO on CIFAR-10, MNIST, and Imagenet, achieving success rates of 94.9%, 98.5%, and 96.9%, respectively, while submitting numbers of queries comparable to prior work. Our results show that black-box attacks can be adapted to favor fewer queries or higher quality adversarial images, while still maintaining high success rates. 
    more » « less
  2. This paper investigates an adversary's ease of attack in generating adversarial examples for real-world scenarios. We address three key requirements for practical attacks for the real-world: 1) automatically constraining the size and shape of the attack so it can be applied with stickers, 2) transform-robustness, i.e., robustness of a attack to environmental physical variations such as viewpoint and lighting changes, and 3) supporting attacks in not only white-box, but also black-box hard-label scenarios, so that the adversary can attack proprietary models. In this work, we propose GRAPHITE, an efficient and general framework for generating attacks that satisfy the above three key requirements. GRAPHITE takes advantage of transform-robustness, a metric based on expectation over transforms (EoT), to automatically generate small masks and optimize with gradient-free optimization. GRAPHITE is also flexible as it can easily trade-off transform-robustness, perturbation size, and query count in black-box settings. On a GTSRB model in a hard-label black-box setting, we are able to find attacks on all possible 1,806 victim-target class pairs with averages of 77.8% transform-robustness, perturbation size of 16.63% of the victim images, and 126K queries per pair. For digital-only attacks where achieving transform-robustness is not a requirement, GRAPHITE is able to find successful small-patch attacks with an average of only 566 queries for 92.2% of victim-target pairs. GRAPHITE is also able to find successful attacks using perturbations that modify small areas of the input image against PatchGuard, a recently proposed defense against patch-based attacks. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Patch-based attacks introduce a perceptible but localized change to the input that induces misclassification. A limitation of current patch-based black-box attacks is that they perform poorly for targeted attacks, and even for the less challenging non-targeted scenarios, they require a large number of queries. Our proposed PatchAttack is query efficient and can break models for both targeted and non-targeted attacks. PatchAttack induces misclassifications by superimposing small textured patches on the input image. We parametrize the appearance of these patches by a dictionary of class-specific textures. This texture dictionary is learned by clustering Gram matrices of feature activations from a VGG backbone. PatchAttack optimizes the position and texture parameters of each patch using reinforcement learning. Our experiments show that PatchAttack achieves > 99% success rate on ImageNet for a wide range of architectures, while only manipulating 3% of the image for non-targeted attacks and 10% on average for targeted attacks. Furthermore, we show that PatchAttack circumvents state-of-the-art adversarial defense methods successfully. T 
    more » « less
  4. Existing adversarial algorithms for Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) have largely focused on identifying an optimal time to attack a DRL agent. However, little work has been explored in injecting efficient adversarial perturbations in DRL environments. We propose a suite of novel DRL adversarial attacks, called ACADIA, representing AttaCks Against Deep reInforcement leArning. ACADIA provides a set of efficient and robust perturbation-based adversarial attacks to disturb the DRL agent's decision-making based on novel combinations of techniques utilizing momentum, ADAM optimizer (i.e., Root Mean Square Propagation, or RMSProp), and initial randomization. These kinds of DRL attacks with novel integration of such techniques have not been studied in the existing Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) and DRL research. We consider two well-known DRL algorithms, Deep-Q Learning Network (DQN) and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO), under Atari games and MuJoCo where both targeted and non-targeted attacks are considered with or without the state-of-the-art defenses in DRL (i.e., RADIAL and ATLA). Our results demonstrate that the proposed ACADIA outperforms existing gradient-based counterparts under a wide range of experimental settings. ACADIA is nine times faster than the state-of-the-art Carlini & Wagner (CW) method with better performance under defenses of DRL. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Recent publications have shown that neural network based classifiers are vulnerable to adversarial inputs that are virtually indistinguishable from normal data, constructed explicitly for the purpose of forcing misclassification. In this paper, we present several defenses to counter these threats. First, we observe that most adversarial attacks succeed by mounting gradient ascent on the confidence returned by the model, which allows adversary to gain understanding of the classification boundary. Our defenses are based on denying access to the precise classification boundary. Our first defense adds a controlled random noise to the output confidence levels, which prevents an adversary from converging in their numerical approximation attack. Our next defense is based on the observation that by varying the order of the training, often we arrive at models which offer the same classification accuracy, yet they are different numerically. An ensemble of such models allows us to randomly switch between these equivalent models during query which further blurs the classification boundary. We demonstrate our defense via an adversarial input generator which defeats previously published defenses but cannot breach the proposed defenses do to their non-static nature. 
    more » « less