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Title: Deeply subwavelength integrated excitonic van der Waals nanophotonics

The wave nature of light sets a fundamental diffraction limit that challenges confinement and control of light in nanoscale structures with dimensions significantly smaller than the wavelength. Here, we study light–matter interaction in van der Waals MoS2nanophotonic devices. We show that light can be coupled and guided in structures with dimensions as small as ≃λ/16 (∼60nm at 1000 nm excitation wavelength), while offering unprecedented optical field confinement. This deep subwavelength optical field confinement is achieved by exploiting strong lightwave dispersion in MoS2. We further study the performance of a range of nanophotonic integrated devices via far- and near-field measurements. Our near-field measurements reveal detailed imaging of excitation, evolution, and guidance of fields in nanostructured MoS2, whereas our far-field study examines light excitation and coupling to highly confined integrated photonics. Nanophotonics at a fraction of a wavelength demonstrated here could dramatically reduce the size of integrated photonic devices and opto-electronic circuits with potential applications in optical information science and engineering.

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Optical Society of America
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Medium: X Size: Article No. 1345
["Article No. 1345"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). 
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