skip to main content

Title: CRC-Aided High-Rate Convolutional Codes With Short Blocklengths for List Decoding
Recently, rate-1/ n zero-terminated (ZT) and tail-biting (TB) convolutional codes (CCs) with cyclic redundancy check (CRC)-aided list decoding have been shown to closely approach the random-coding union (RCU) bound for short blocklengths. This paper designs CRC polynomials for rate-( n - 1)/ n ZT and TB CCs with short blocklengths. This paper considers both standard rate-( n -1)/ n CC polynomials and rate-( n - 1)/ n designs resulting from puncturing a rate-1/2 code. The CRC polynomials are chosen to maximize the minimum distance d min and minimize the number of nearest neighbors A dmin . For the standard rate-( n - 1)/ n codes, utilization of the dual trellis proposed by Yamada et al . lowers the complexity of CRC-aided serial list Viterbi decoding (SLVD). CRC-aided SLVD of the TBCCs closely approaches the RCU bound at a blocklength of 128. This paper compares the FER performance (gap to the RCU bound) and complexity of the CRC-aided standard and punctured ZTCCs and TBCCs. This paper also explores the complexity-performance trade-off for three TBCC decoders: a single-trellis approach, a multi-trellis approach, and a modified single-trellis approach with pre-processing using the wrap around Viterbi algorithm.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Tal, Ido
Publisher / Repository:
IEEE Transactions on Communications
Date Published:
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Communications
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 1
Subject(s) / Keyword(s):
["Codes","Convolutional codes","Standards","Maximum likelihood decoding","Complexity theory","Signal to noise ratio","Viterbi algorithm"]
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Recently, rate-1/ω zero-terminated and tail-biting convolutional codes (ZTCCs and TBCCs) with cyclic-redundancy-check (CRC)-aided list decoding have been shown to closely approach the random-coding union (RCU) bound for short blocklengths. This paper designs CRCs for rate-(ω−1)/ω CCs with short blocklengths, considering both the ZT and TB cases. The CRC design seeks to optimize the frame error rate (FER) performance of the code resulting from the concatenation of the CRC and the CC. Utilization of the dual trellis proposed by Yamada et al. lowers the complexity of CRC-aided serial list Viterbi decoding (SLVD) of ZTCCs and TBCCs. CRC-aided SLVD of the TBCCs closely approaches the RCU bound at a blocklength of 128. 
    more » « less
  2. This paper applies probabilistic amplitude shaping (PAS) to a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) aided trellis coded modulation (TCM) to achieve the short-blocklength random coding union (RCU) bound. In the transmitter, the equally likely message bits are first encoded by distribution matcher to generate amplitude symbols with the desired distribution. The binary representations of the distribution matcher outputs are then encoded by a CRC. Finally, the CRC-encoded bits are encoded and modulated by Ungerboeck's TCM scheme, which consists of a k/(k+1) systematic tail-biting convolutional code and a mapping function that maps coded bits to channel signals with capacity-achieving distribution. This paper proves that, for the proposed transmitter, the CRC bits have uniform distribution and that the channel signals have symmetric distribution. In the receiver, the serial list Viterbi decoding (S-LVD) is used to estimate the information bits. Simulation results show that, for the proposed CRC-TCM-PAS system with 87 input bits and 65-67 8-AM coded output symbols, the decoding performance under additive white Gaussian noise channel achieves the RCU bound with properly designed CRC and convolutional codes. 
    more » « less
  3. An expurgating linear function (ELF) is an outer code that disallows low-weight codewords of the inner code. ELFs can be designed either to maximize the minimum distance or to minimize the codeword error rate (CER) of the expurgated code. A list-decoding sieve can efficiently identify ELFs that maximize the minimum distance of the expurgated code. For convolutional inner codes, this paper provides analytical distance spectrum union (DSU) bounds on the CER of the concatenated code. For short codeword lengths, ELFs transform a good inner code into a great concatenated code. For a constant message size of K = 64 bits or constant codeword blocklength of N = 152 bits, an ELF can reduce the gap at CER 10−6 between the DSU and the random-coding union (RCU) bounds from over 1 dB for the inner code alone to 0.23 dB for the concatenated code. The DSU bounds can also characterize puncturing that mitigates the rate overhead of the ELF while maintaining the DSU-to-RCU gap. List Viterbi decoding guided by the ELF achieves maximum likelihood (ML) decoding of the concatenated code with a sufficiently large list size. The rate-K/(K+m) ELF outer code reduces rate and list decoding increases decoder complexity. As SNR increases, the average list size converges to 1 and average complexity is similar to Viterbi decoding on the trellis of the inner code. For rare large-magnitude noise events, which occur less often than the FER of the inner code, a deep search in the list finds the ML codeword. 
    more » « less
  4. This paper derives a union bound on the frame error rate (FER) of a probabilistic amplitude shaping (PAS) system which uses a CRC-aided, rate −k/k+1 , systematic, recursive trellis-coded modulation (TCM). A tail-biting convolutional code (TBCC) provides the feed-forward error correction (FEC) code for the TCM. The system is referred as CRC-TCM-PAS [1]. In order to derive the union bound, we first prove that the concatenation of a CRC and a rate −k/k+1 convolutional code is equivalent to a new convolutional code. Then, we give the generating function of the new convolutional code using Biglieri's product-state-diagram approach. A union bound can be calculated using the generating function. Simulation results show that the derived union bound is tight in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime and can be used to design the convolutional and CRC codes. Simulation results also show that the optimized CRC-TCM-PAS system exceeds the random coding union (RCU) bound and outperforms the PAS systems with various FEC codes studied in [2] for the same number of input bits and the same transmission rate. 
    more » « less
  5. This paper applies probabilistic amplitude shaping (PAS) to cyclic redundancy check (CRC)-aided tail-biting trellis-coded modulation (TCM). CRC-TCM-PAS produces practical codes for short block lengths on the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. In the transmitter, equally likely message bits are encoded by a distribution matcher (DM) generating amplitude symbols with a desired distribution. A CRC is appended to the sequence of amplitude symbols, and this sequence is then encoded and modulated by TCM to produce real-valued channel input signals. This paper proves that the sign values produced by the TCM are asymptotically equally likely to be positive or negative. The CRC-TCM-PAS scheme can thus generate channel input symbols with a symmetric capacity-approaching probability mass function. The paper provides an analytical upper bound on the frame error rate of the CRC-TCM-PAS system over the AWGN channel. This FER upper bound is the objective function used for jointly optimizing the CRC and convolutional code. Additionally, this paper proposes a multi-composition DM, which is a collection of multiple constant-composition DMs. The optimized CRC-TCM-PAS systems achieve frame error rates below the random coding union (RCU) bound in AWGN and outperform the short-blocklength PAS systems with various other forward error correction codes studied in [2]. 
    more » « less