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Title: Development of photoreactive demineralized bone matrix 3D printing colloidal inks for bone tissue engineering

Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been widely used clinically for dental, craniofacial and skeletal bone repair, as an osteoinductive and osteoconductive material. 3D printing (3DP) enables the creation of bone tissue engineering scaffolds with complex geometries and porosity. Photoreactive methacryloylated gelatin nanoparticles (GNP-MAs) 3DP inks have been developed, which display gel-like behavior for high print fidelity and are capable of post-printing photocrosslinking for control of scaffold swelling and degradation. Here, novel DBM nanoparticles (DBM-NPs, ∼400 nm) were fabricated and characterized prior to incorporation in 3DP inks. The objectives of this study were to determine how these DBM-NPs would influence the printability of composite colloidal 3DP inks, assess the impact of ultraviolet (UV) crosslinking on 3DP scaffold swelling and degradation and evaluate the osteogenic potential of DBM-NP-containing composite colloidal scaffolds. The addition of methacryloylated DBM-NPs (DBM-NP-MAs) to composite colloidal inks (100:0, 95:5 and 75:25 GNP-MA:DBM-NP-MA) did not significantly impact the rheological properties associated with printability, such as viscosity and shear recovery or photocrosslinking. UV crosslinking with a UV dosage of 3 J/cm2 directly impacted the rate of 3DP scaffold swelling for all GNP-MA:DBM-NP-MA ratios with an ∼40% greater increase in scaffold area and pore area in uncrosslinked versus photocrosslinked scaffolds over 21 days in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Likewise, degradation (hydrolytic and enzymatic) over 21 days for all DBM-NP-MA content groups was significantly decreased, ∼45% less in PBS and collagenase-containing PBS, in UV-crosslinked versus uncrosslinked groups. The incorporation of DBM-NP-MAs into scaffolds decreased mass loss compared to GNP-MA-only scaffolds during collagenase degradation. An in vitro osteogenic study with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated osteoconductive properties of 3DP scaffolds for the DBM-NP-MA contents examined. The creation of photoreactive DBM-NP-MAs and their application in 3DP provide a platform for the development of ECM-derived colloidal materials and tailored control of biochemical cue presentation with broad tissue engineering applications.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Regenerative Biomaterials
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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