skip to main content

Title: Fatigue Analysis of Bistable Composite Laminate

Bistable composite laminates have exhibited enormous potential in morphing and energy harvesting followed by a wide range of application in aerospace, power generation and automobile industries. This study presents the fatigue analysis of bistable laminates in terms of stiffness degradation and loss of bistability. Moisture saturation of the specimens are ensured by keeping them in a controlled laboratory environment for an extended period of time. Mass of the specimens have been measured to quantify the moisture saturation. Fatigue tests are performed at 1 Hz frequency, and R = −1 stress ratio which is the ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress. Specimens are tested for 3 million cycles in displacement control. Load-displacement plot from the test is divided into 5 stiffness regions. A piecewise study of each region has demonstrated good agreement with existing analytical model. Stiffness degradation in 4 regions corresponding to 2 stable configurations follows general trend for composites up to the second stage of damage in three stage damage progression model while the remaining region corresponding to unstable configuration is not considered in this analysis. Test results have been reproduced with minor discrepancy at the specified environmental and loading condition, ply configuration, and size of the laminate. Test protocols, results, and damage analysis presented in this study can be utilized to evaluate the fatigue performance of multistable CFRP structures subjected to higher amplitudes and frequencies.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Publisher / Repository:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceeding of ASME 2022 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Dearborn, Michigan, USA
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Bistable composite laminates have large-scale applications in morphing and energy-harvesting structures, but their fatigue performance remains largely unexplored. This study investigates the stiffness and damage progression and evaluates bistable performance to develop protocols for long-term applications. We analyze the effects of displacement-controlled fully reversible high cycle fatigue-loading on stiffness, damage, curvature, and snap-through load in the out-of-plane loading direction at eight different combinations of parameters with frequency from 1 to 10 Hz, two boundary conditions, and temperature from 22°C to 150°C up to 3 to 10 million cycles. Stiffness and damage evolution analysis demonstrate the first two stages in out-of-plane fatigue loading. The study proposes a damage definition in terms of load adapting with two fatigue damage models: (1) Shiri Model and (2) Wu Model, while both models exhibit reasonable accuracy in predicting damage for the first two stages despite deviating at the final cycle due to assuming this cycle as the final failure cycle. Of the two models, the Shiri model provided a smaller range of model parameter values, 0.22 and 0.43, for parameters p and q, respectively, which reflects adjustability to different test conditions by maintaining a moderate range. Specimens encountered no final failure by fiber breakage and did not lose bistability for any combination. Curvature and snap-through load measurements have not substantially changed due to fatigue loading. These findings confirm application protocols with a broad range of parameters for which the laminates can operate without significant fatigue damage and maintain their bistable performance for an infinite lifetime.

    more » « less

    Due to rock mass being commonly subjected to compressive or shear loading, the mode II fracture toughness is an important material parameter for rocks. Fracturing in rocks is governed by the behavior of a nonlinear region surrounding the crack tip called the fracture process zone (FPZ). However, the characteristics of mode II fracture are still determined based on the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), which assumes that a pure mode II loading results in a pure mode II fracture. In this study, the FPZ development in Barre granite specimens under mode II loading was investigated using the short beam compression (SBC) test. Additionally, the influence of lateral confinement on various characteristics of mode II fracture was studied. The experimental setup included the simultaneous monitoring of surface deformation using the two-dimensional digital image correlation technique (2D-DIC) to identify fracture mode and characterize the FPZ evolution in Barre granite specimens. The 2D-DIC analysis showed a dominant mixed-mode I/II fracture in the ligament between two notches, irrespective of confinement level on the SBC specimens. The influence of confinement on the SBC specimens was assessed by analyzing the evolution of crack displacement and changes in value of mode II fracture toughness. Larger levels of damage in confined specimens were observed prior to the failure than the unconfined specimens, indicating an increase in the fracture resistance and therefore mode II fracture toughness with the confining stress.


    The fracturing in laboratory-scale rock specimens is often characterized by the deformation of the inelastic region surrounding the crack tips, also known as the fracture process zone (FPZ) (Backers et al., 2005; Ghamgosar and Erarslan, 2016). While the influence of the FPZ on mode I fracture in rocks has been extensively investigated, there are limited studies on FPZ development in rocks under pure mode II loading (Ji et al., 2016; Lin et al., 2020; Garg et al., 2021; Li et al., 2021).

    more » « less
  3. INTRODUCTION: Quadriceps tendon autografts have experienced a rapid rise in popularity for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction due to advantages in graft sizing and potential improvement in biomechanics. While there is a growing body of literature on use of quadriceps tendon grafts, deeper investigation into the biomechanical properties of stitch techniques in this construct has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel suture needle against different conventional suture needles by comparing the biomechanical properties of two commonly used stitch methods, a whip stitch, and a locking stitch in quadriceps tendon. It was hypothesized that the new device would be capable of creating both whip stitches and locking stitches that are biomechanically equivalent to similar stitch techniques performed with conventional needle products. METHODS: This was a controlled biomechanical study. A total of 24 matched pair cadaveric knees were dissected and a total of 48 quadriceps tendons were harvested and tested. All tendon grafts were standardized to the same size. Samples were then randomized into the following groups, keeping the matched pairs together: (Group 1, n=16) consisted of Company W’s novel two-part suture needle design, (Group 2, n=16) consisted of Company A suture, and (Group 3, n=16) consisted of Company B suture. For each group, the matched pairs were categorized into subgroups to be instrumented with either a whip stitch or a locking stitch. Two fellowship-trained surgeons performed all stitching, where they each instrumented 8 tendon grafts per group. For instrumentation, the grafts were clamped to a preparation stand in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations for passing each suture needle. A skin marker was used to identify and mark five evenly spaced points, 0.5 cm apart, as a guide to create a 5-stitch series. For Group 1, the whip stitch as well as the locking whip stitch were performed with a novel 2-part needle. For Group 2, the whip stitch was performed with loop suture needle and the locking stitch was krackow with a curved needle. Similarly, for Group 3, the whip stitch was performed with loop suture needle and the locking stitch was krackow with a curved needle (Figure 1). Cyclical testing was performed using a servohydraulic testing machine (MTS Bionix) equipped with a 5kN load cell. A standardized length of tendon, 7 cm, was coupled to the MTS actuator by passing it through a cryoclamp cooled by dry ice to a temperature of -5°C (Figure 2). All testing samples were then pre-conditioned to normalize viscoelastic effects and testing variability through application of cyclical loading to 25-100 N for three cycles. The samples were then held at 89 N for 15 minutes. Thereafter, the samples were loaded to 50-200 N for 500 cycles at 1 Hz. If samples survived, they were ramped to failure at 20 mm/min. Displacement and force data was collected throughout testing. Metrics of interest were total elongation (mm), stiffness (N/mm), ultimate failure load (N) and failure mode. Data are presented as averages plus/minus standard deviation. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey pairwise comparison post hoc analysis was used to evaluate differences between the various stitching methods. Statistical significance was set at P = .05. RESULTS SECTION: For the whip stitch methods, the total elongation was found to be equivalent across all methods (W: 36 ± 10 mm; A: 32 ± 18 mm; B: 33 ± 8 mm). The stiffness of Company A (103 ± 11 N/mm) method was significantly larger than Company W (64 ± 8 N/mm; p=.001), whereas stiffness of whip stitch by Company W was equivalent to Company B (80 ± 32 N/mm). The ultimate failure load was equivalent across all whip stitch methods (W: 379 ± 31 mm; A: 412 ± 103 mm; B: 438 ± 63 mm). For the locking stitch method, the total elongation (W: 26 ± 10 mm; A: 14 ± 2 mm; B: 29 ± 5 mm), stiffness (W: 75 ± 11 N/mm; A: 104 ± 23 N/mm; B: 79 ± 10 N/mm) and ultimate load (W: 343 ± 22 N; A: 369 ± 30 N; B: 438 ± 63 N) were found to be equivalent across all methods. The failure mode for all groups is in Table 1. The common mode of failure across study groups and stitch configuration was suture breakage. However, the whip stitch from Company A and Company B had varied failure modes. DISCUSSION: Products from the three manufacturers were found to produce biomechanically equivalent whip stitches and locking stitches with respect to elongation and ultimate failure load. The only significant difference observed was that the whip stitch created with Company A’s product had a higher stiffness than Company W’s product, which could have been due to differences in the suture material. In this cadaveric quadriceps tendon model, it was shown that when using Company W’s novel two-part suture needle, users were capable of creating whip stitches and locking stitches that achieved equivalent biomechanical performance compared to similar stitch techniques performed with conventional needle products. A failure mode limited solely to suture breakage for methods completed with Company W’s needle product suggest a reliable suture construct with limited tissue damage. SIGNIFICANCE/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Having a suture needle device with the versatility to easily perform different stitching constructs may provide surgeons an advantage needed to improve clinical outcomes. The data presented illustrates a strong new suture technique that has equivalent performance when compared to conventional needle devices and has promising applications in graft preparation for ligament and tendon reconstruction. 
    more » « less
  4. Despite recent advances, the need for improved non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and quantify early-stage damage in polymer matrix composites remains critical. A recently developed microwave based NDE technique which capitalizes on the ubiquitous presence of moisture within a polymer matrix has yielded positive results. The chemical state of moisture directly affects dielectric properties of a polymer matrix composite. Thus, the preferential diffusion of ‘free’ water into microcracks and voids associated with physical damage allows for damage detection through spatial permittivity mapping using techniques that are sensitive to moisture content and molecular water state. While it has been demonstrated that the method can detect damage at low levels of moisture and impact damage, the specific parameters under which the technique will accurately and reliably capture damage within a composite are unknown. The three variables affecting the performance of the method to detect impact damage are moisture content, extent of damage, and resolution of the dielectric scanning technique. Here, we report on the impact of the latter as a function of the two environmental variables (moisture and damage extent). To understand limits and optimize execution of the technique, the interrelationships between each of the variables must be explored. This study investigates the relationship between moisture content and scan resolution. Two BMI/quartz laminates were impacted at 9 Joules to induce barely visible impact damage. The specimens were inspected at a variety of gravimetric moisture levels, and several variations of the spatial permittivity map were created for each moisture level. Detection standards for the technique were investigated based on moisture content and desired scan accuracy; findings showed at 0.05-0.4% moisture content (by wt.) the technique can detect damage location and size with a minimum of 88% accuracy. Pareto frontiers were generated at each moisture level to optimize scan speed and accuracy.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    A novel finite element method (FEM) is developed to study mechanical response of axons embedded in extra cellular matrix (ECM) when subjected to harmonic uniaxial stretch under purely non-affine kinematic boundary conditions. The proposed modeling approach combines hyper-elastic (such as Ogden model) and time/frequency domain viscoelastic constitutive models to evaluate the effect of parametrically varying oligodendrocyte-axon tethering under harmonic stretch at 50Hz. A hybrid hyper-viscoelastic material (HVE) model enabled the analysis of repeated uniaxial load on stress propagation and damage accumulation in white matter.

    In the proposed FEM, oligodendrocyte connections to axons are depicted via a spring-dashpot model. This tethering technique facilitates contact definition at various locations, parameterizes connection points and varies stiffness of connection hubs. Results from a home-grown FE submodel configuration of a single oligodendrocyte tethered to axons at various locations are presented. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) are computed between stress-strain plots to depict trends in mechanical response. Steady-state dynamic (SSD) simulations show stress relaxation in axons. Gradual axonal softening under repetitive loads is illustrated employing Prony series - HVE models. Representative von-Mises stress plots indicate that undulated axons experience bending stresses along their tortuous path, suggesting greater susceptibility to damage accumulation and fatigue failure due to repeated strains.

    more » « less