skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2024

Title: Pseudo-Labeling with Graph Active Learning for Few-shot Node Classification
Graphs have emerged as one of the most important and powerful data structures to perform content analysis in many fields. In this line of work, node classification is a classic task, which is generally performed using graph neural networks (GNNs). Unfortunately, regular GNNs cannot be well generalized into the real-world application scenario when the labeled nodes are few. To address this challenge, we propose a novel few-shot node classification model that leverages pseudo-labeling with graph active learning. We first provide a theoretical analysis to argue that extra unlabeled data benefit few-shot classification. Inspired by this, our model proceeds by performing multi-level data augmentation with consistency and contrastive regularizations for better semi-supervised pseudo-labeling, and further devising graph active learning to facilitate pseudo-label selection and improve model effectiveness. Extensive experiments on four public citation networks have demonstrated that our model can effectively improve node classification accuracy with considerably few labeled data, which significantly outperforms all state-of-the-art baselines by large margins.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
IEEE International Conference on Data Mining
Subject(s) / Keyword(s):
["Node classification","Graph neural networks","Data augmentation","Active learning","Pseudo-labeling"]
Medium: X
Shanghai China
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Inspired by the extensive success of deep learning, graph neural networks (GNNs) have been proposed to learn expressive node representations and demonstrated promising performance in various graph learning tasks. However, existing endeavors predominately focus on the conventional semi-supervised setting where relatively abundant gold-labeled nodes are provided. While it is often impractical due to the fact that data labeling is unbearably laborious and requires intensive domain knowledge, especially when considering the heterogeneity of graph-structured data. Under the few-shot semi-supervised setting, the performance of most of the existing GNNs is inevitably undermined by the overfitting and oversmoothing issues, largely owing to the shortage of labeled data. In this paper, we propose a decoupled network architecture equipped with a novel meta-learning algorithm to solve this problem. In essence, our framework Meta-PN infers high-quality pseudo labels on unlabeled nodes via a meta-learned label propagation strategy, which effectively augments the scarce labeled data while enabling large receptive fields during training. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach offers easy and substantial performance gains compared to existing techniques on various benchmark datasets. The implementation and extended manuscript of this work are publicly available at 
    more » « less
  2. Towards the challenging problem of semi-supervised node classification, there have been extensive studies. As a frontier, Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have aroused great interest recently, which update the representation of each node by aggregating information of its neighbors. However, most GNNs have shallow layers with a limited receptive field and may not achieve satisfactory performance especially when the number of labeled nodes is quite small. To address this challenge, we innovatively propose a graph few-shot learning (GFL) algorithm that incorporates prior knowledge learned from auxiliary graphs to improve classification accuracy on the target graph. Specifically, a transferable metric space characterized by a node embedding and a graph-specific prototype embedding function is shared between auxiliary graphs and the target, facilitating the transfer of structural knowledge. Extensive experiments and ablation studies on four real-world graph datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model and the contribution of each component. 
    more » « less
  3. Node classification is of great importance among various graph mining tasks. In practice, real-world graphs generally follow the long-tail distribution, where a large number of classes only consist of limited labeled nodes. Although Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have achieved significant improvements in node classification, their performance decreases substantially in such a few-shot scenario. The main reason can be attributed to the vast generalization gap between meta-training and meta-test due to the task variance caused by different node/class distributions in meta-tasks (i.e., node-level and class-level variance). Therefore, to effectively alleviate the impact of task variance, we propose a task-adaptive node classification framework under the few-shot learning setting. Specifically, we first accumulate meta-knowledge across classes with abundant labeled nodes. Then we transfer such knowledge to the classes with limited labeled nodes via our proposed task-adaptive modules. In particular, to accommodate the different node/class distributions among meta-tasks, we propose three essential modules to perform node-level, class-level, and task-level adaptations in each meta-task, respectively. In this way, our framework can conduct adaptations to different meta-tasks and thus advance the model generalization performance on meta-test tasks. Extensive experiments on four prevalent node classification datasets demonstrate the superiority of our framework over the state-of-the-art baselines. Our code is provided at 
    more » « less
  4. Graph few-shot learning is of great importance among various graph learning tasks. Under the few-shot scenario, models are often required to conduct classification given limited labeled samples. Existing graph few-shot learning methods typically leverage Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and perform classification across a series of meta-tasks. Nevertheless, these methods generally rely on the original graph (i.e., the graph that the meta-task is sampled from) to learn node representations. Consequently, the learned representations for the same nodes are identical in all meta-tasks. Since the class sets are different across meta-tasks, node representations should be task-specific to promote classification performance. Therefore, to adaptively learn node representations across meta-tasks, we propose a novel framework that learns a task-specific structure for each meta-task. To handle the variety of nodes across meta-tasks, we extract relevant nodes and learn task-specific structures based on node influence and mutual information. In this way, we can learn node representations with the task-specific structure tailored for each meta-task. We further conduct extensive experiments on five node classification datasets under both single- and multiple-graph settings to validate the superiority of our framework over the state-of-the-art baselines. 
    more » « less
  5. Graph neural networks (GNNs) have achieved tremendous success in many graph learning tasks such as node classifica- tion, graph classification and link prediction. For the classifi- cation task, GNNs’ performance often highly depends on the number of labeled nodes and thus could be significantly ham- pered due to the expensive annotation cost. The sparse litera- ture on active learning for GNNs has primarily focused on se- lecting only one sample each iteration, which becomes ineffi- cient for large scale datasets. In this paper, we study the batch active learning setting for GNNs where the learning agent can acquire labels of multiple samples at each time. We formu- late batch active learning as a cooperative multi-agent rein- forcement learning problem and present a novel reinforced batch-mode active learning framework (BIGENE). To avoid the combinatorial explosion of the joint action space, we in- troduce a value decomposition method that factorizes the to- tal Q-value into the average of individual Q-values. More- over, we propose a novel multi-agent Q-network consisting of a graph convolutional network (GCN) component and a gated recurrent unit (GRU) component. The GCN compo- nent takes both the informativeness and inter-dependences between nodes into account and the GRU component enables the agent to consider interactions between selected nodes in the same batch. Experimental results on multiple public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method. 
    more » « less