skip to main content

Title: Characterizing the Directionality of Gravitational Wave Emission from Matter Motions within Core-collapse Supernovae

We analyze the directional dependence of the gravitational wave (GW) emission from 15 3D neutrino radiation hydrodynamic simulations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Using spin weighted spherical harmonics, we develop a new analytic technique to quantify the evolution of the distribution of GW emission over all angles. We construct a physics-informed toy model that can be used to approximate GW distributions for general ellipsoid-like systems, and use it to provide closed form expressions for the distribution of GWs for different CCSN phases. Using these toy models, we approximate the protoneutron star (PNS) dynamics during multiple CCSN stages and obtain similar GW distributions to simulation outputs. When considering all viewing angles, we apply this new technique to quantify the evolution of preferred directions of GW emission. For nonrotating cases, this dominant viewing angle drifts isotropically throughout the supernova, set by the dynamical timescale of the PNS. For rotating cases, during core bounce and the following tens of milliseconds, the strongest GW signal is observed along the equator. During the accretion phase, comparable—if not stronger—GW amplitudes are generated along the axis of rotation, which can be enhanced by the lowT/∣W∣ instability. We show two dominant factors influencing the directionality of GW emission are the degree of initial rotation and explosion morphology. Lastly, looking forward, we note the sensitive interplay between GW detector site and supernova orientation, along with its effect on detecting individual polarization modes.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Medium: X Size: Article No. 21
["Article No. 21"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We study in detail the ejecta conditions and theoretical nucleosynthetic results for 18 three-dimensional core-collapse supernova (CCSN) simulations done by Fornax. Most of the simulations are carried out to at least 3 s after bounce, which allows us to follow their longer-term behaviors. We find that multidimensional effects introduce many complexities into the ejecta conditions. We see a stochastic electron fraction evolution, complex peak temperature distributions and histories, and long-tail distributions of the time spent within nucleosynthetic temperature ranges. These all lead to substantial variation in CCSN nucleosynthetic yields and differences from 1D results. We discuss the production of lighterα-nuclei, radioactive isotopes, heavier elements, and a few isotopes of special interest. Comparing pre-CCSN and CCSN contributions, we find that a significant fraction of elements between roughly Si and Ge are generally produced in CCSNe. We find that44Ti exhibits an extended production timescale as compared to56Ni, which may explain its different distribution and higher than previously predicted abundances in supernova remnants such as Cas A and SN1987A. We also discuss the morphology of the ejected elements. This study highlights the high-level diversity of ejecta conditions and nucleosynthetic results in 3D CCSN simulations and emphasizes the need for additional long-term (∼10 s) 3D simulations to properly address such complexities.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Observations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) reveal a wealth of information about the dynamics of the supernova ejecta and its composition but very little direct information about the progenitor. Constraining properties of the progenitor and the explosion requires coupling the observations with a theoretical model of the explosion. Here we begin with the CCSN simulations of Couch et al., which use a nonparametric treatment of the neutrino transport while also accounting for turbulence and convection. In this work we use the SuperNova Explosion Code to evolve the CCSN hydrodynamics to later times and compute bolometric light curves. Focusing on Type IIP SNe (SNe IIP), we then (1) directly compare the theoretical STIR explosions to observations and (2) assess how properties of the progenitor’s core can be estimated from optical photometry in the plateau phase alone. First, the distribution of plateau luminosities (L50) and ejecta velocities achieved by our simulations is similar to the observed distributions. Second, we fit our models to the light curves and velocity evolution of some well-observed SNe. Third, we recover well-known correlations, as well as the difficulty of connecting any one SN property to zero-age main-sequence mass. Finally, we show that there is a usable, linear correlation between iron core mass andL50such that optical photometry alone of SNe IIP can give us insights into the cores of massive stars. Illustrating this by application to a few SNe, we find iron core masses of 1.3–1.5Mwith typical errors of 0.05M. Data are publicly available online on Zenodo: doi:10.5281/zenodo.6631964.

    more » « less

    In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate the time evolution of the proto-neutron star (PNS) structure from the neutrino signal in a core-collapse supernova (CCSN). Employing recent results from multidimensional CCSN simulations, we delve into a relation between the total emitted neutrino energy (TONE) and PNS mass/radius, and we find that they are strongly correlated with each other. We fit the relation by simple polynomial functions connecting the TONE to the mass and radius of the PNS as a function of time. By combining another fitting function representing the correlation between the TONE and the cumulative number of events at each neutrino observatory, the PNS mass and radius can be retrieved from purely observed neutrino data. We demonstrate retrievals of PNS mass and radius from mock data of the neutrino signal, and we assess the capability of our proposed method. While underlining the limitations of the method, we also discuss the importance of the joint analysis with the gravitational wave signal. This would reduce uncertainties of parameter estimations in our method, and may narrow down the possible neutrino oscillation model. The proposed method is a very easy and inexpensive computation, which will be useful in real data analysis of the CCSN neutrino signal.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract The advent of sensitive gravitational-wave (GW) detectors, coupled with wide-field, high-cadence optical time-domain surveys, raises the possibility of the first joint GW–electromagnetic detections of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). For targeted searches of GWs from CCSNe, optical observations can be used to increase the sensitivity of the search by restricting the relevant time interval, defined here as the GW search window (GSW). The extent of the GSW is a critical factor in determining the achievable false alarm probability for a triggered CCSN search. The ability to constrain the GSW from optical observations depends on how early a CCSN is detected, as well as the ability to model the early optical emission. Here we present several approaches to constrain the GSW, ranging in complexity from model-independent analytical fits of the early light curve, model-dependent fits of the rising or entire light curve, and a new data-driven approach using existing well-sampled CCSN light curves from Kepler and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. We use these approaches to determine the time of core-collapse and its associated uncertainty (i.e., the GSW). We apply our methods to two Type II SNe that occurred during LIGO/Virgo Observing Run 3: SN 2019fcn and SN 2019ejj (both in the same galaxy at d = 15.7 Mpc). Our approach shortens the duration of the GSW and improves the robustness of the GSW compared to the techniques used in past GW CCSN searches. 
    more » « less
  5. Liu, W. ; Wang, Y. ; Guo, B. ; Tang, X. ; Zeng, S. (Ed.)
    Metal-poor stars were formed during the early epochs when only massive stars had time to evolve and contribute to the chemical enrichment. Low-mass metal-poor stars survive until the present and provide fossil records of the nucleosynthesis of early massive stars. On the other hand, short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system (ESS) reflect the nucleosynthesis of sources that occurred close to the proto-solar cloud in both space and time. Both the ubiquity of Sr and Ba and the diversity of heavy-element abundance patterns observed in single metal-poor stars suggest that some neutron-capture mechanisms other than the r -process might have operated in early massive stars. Three such mechanisms are discussed: the weak s -process in non-rotating models with initial carbon enhancement, a new s -process induced by rapid rotation in models with normal initial composition, and neutron-capture processes induced by proton ingestion in non-rotating models. In addition, meteoritic data are discussed to constrain the core-collapse supernova (CCSN) that might have triggered the formation of the solar system and provided some of the SLRs in the ESS. If there was a CCSN trigger, the data point to a low-mass CCSN as the most likely candidate. An 11.8 M ⊙ CCSN trigger is discussed. Its nucleosynthesis, the evolution of its remnant, and the interaction of the remnant with the proto-solar cloud appear to satisfy the meteoritic constraints and can account for the abundances of the SLRs 41 Ca, 53 Mn, and 60 Fe in the ESS. 
    more » « less