skip to main content


Title: Photolysis Products of Fluorinated Pharmaceuticals: A Combined Fluorine Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry Approach
Abstract

The aqueous photolysis of four pharmaceuticals with varying fluorinated functional groups was assessed under neutral, alkaline, advanced oxidation, and advanced reduction conditions with varying light sources. Solar simulator quantum yields were 2.21 × 10−1 mol Ei−1for enrofloxacin, 9.36 × 10−3 mol Ei−1for voriconazole, and 1.49 × 10−2 mol Ei−1for flecainide. Florfenicol direct photolysis was slow, taking 150 h for three degradation half‐lives. Bimolecular rate constants between pharmaceuticals and hydroxyl radicals were 109to 1010 M−1 s−1. Using a combined quantitative fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19F‐NMR) and mass spectrometry approach, fluorine mass balances and photolysis product structures were elucidated. Enrofloxacin formed a variety of short‐lived fluorinated intermediates that retained the aryl F motif. Extended photolysis time led to complete aryl F mineralization to fluoride. The aliphatic F moiety on florfenicol was also mineralized to fluoride, but the resulting product was a known antibiotic (thiamphenicol). For voriconazole, the two aryl Fs contributed more to fluoride production compared with the heteroaromatic F, indicating higher stability of the heteroaromatic F motif. The two aliphatic CF3moieties in the flecainide structure remained intact under all conditions, further supporting the stability of these moieties found in per‐ and polyfluoroalkyl substances under a variety of conditions. The advanced treatment conditions generating hydroxyl radicals or hydrated electrons accelerated the degradation, but not the defluorination, of flecainide. The combination of19F‐NMR and mass spectrometry proved powerful in allowing identification of fluorinated products and verifying the functional groups present in the intermediates and products. The results found in the present study will aid in the understanding of which fluorinated functional groups should be incorporated into pharmaceuticals to ensure organofluorine byproducts are not formed in the environment and help determine the water‐treatment processes that effectively remove specific pharmaceuticals and more generally fluorinated motifs.Environ Toxicol Chem2023;00:1–12. © 2023 The Authors.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistrypublished by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.

 
more » « less
NSF-PAR ID:
10477585
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
ISSN:
0730-7268
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a widely used disinfectant, and combined UV light with PAA (i.e. UV/PAA) can be a novel advanced oxidation process for elimination of water contaminants. This study is among the first to evaluate the photolysis of PAA under UV irradiation (254 nm) and degradation of pharmaceuticals by UV/PAA. PAA exhibited high quantum yields (Φ254nm = 1.20 and 2.09 mol·Einstein−1 for the neutral (PAA0) and anionic (PAA-) species, respectively) and also showed scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals (k•OH/PAA0 = (9.33±0.3)×108 M−1·s−1 and k•OH/PAA- = (9.97±2.3)×109 M−1·s−1). The pharmaceuticals were persistent with PAA alone but degraded rapidly by UV/PAA. The contributions of direct photolysis, hydroxyl radicals, and other radicals to pharmaceutical degradation under UV/PAA were systematically evaluated. Results revealed that •OH was the primary radical responsible for the degradation of carbamazepine and ibuprofen by UV/PAA, whereas CH3C(=O)O• and/or CH3C(=O)O2• contributed significantly to the degradation of naproxen and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid by UV/PAA in addition to •OH. The carbon-centered radicals generated from UV/PAA showed strong reactivity to oxidize certain naphthyl compounds. The new knowledge obtained in this study will facilitate further research and development of UV/PAA as a new degradation strategy for water contaminants. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    C–F functionalizations that provide C–C bonds are challenging synthetic transformations, due in part to the large C–F bond strength, short bond length, nonpolarizable nature, the production of fluoride, and the regioselectivity-in the case of multifluorinated substrates. However, commercially available highly fluorinated arenes possess great synthetic potential because they already possess the C–F bonds in the desired locations that would be difficult to selectively fluorinate. In order to take advantage of this potential, selective C–F functionalizations must be developed. Herein, we disclose conditions for the photocatalytic reductive alkylation of highly fluorinated arenes with ubiquitous and unactivated alkenes. The mild reaction conditions provide for a broad functional group scope, and the reaction is remarkably efficient using just 0.25 mol% catalyst. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the strategy by converting highly fluorinated arenes to elaborate (hetero)arenes that contain 2–5 C aryl –F bonds via synergistic use of photocatalysis and S N Ar chemistry. 
    more » « less
  3. ABSTRACT

    Triplet arylnitrenes may provide direct access to aryl azo‐dimers, which have broad commercial applicability. Herein, the photolysis ofp‐azidostilbene (1) in argon‐saturated methanol yielded stilbene azo‐dimer (2) through the dimerization of tripletp‐nitrenostilbene (31N). The formation of31Nwas verified by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy (λmax ~ 375 nm) in cryogenic 2‐methyltetrahydrofuran matrices. At ambient temperature, laser flash photolysis of1in methanol formed31N(λmax ~ 370 nm, 2.85 × 107 s−1). On shorter timescales, a transient absorption (λmax ~ 390 nm) that decayed with a similar rate constant (3.11 × 107 s−1) was assigned to a triplet excited state (T) of1. Density functional theory calculations yielded three configurations for T of1, with the unpaired electrons on the azido (TA) or stilbene moiety (TTw, twisted and TFl, flat). The transient was assigned to TTwbased on its calculated spectrum. CASPT2 calculations gave a singlet–triplet energy gap of 16.6 kcal mol−1for1 N; thus, intersystem crossing of11Nto31Nis unlikely at ambient temperature, supporting the formation of31Nfrom T of1. Thus, sustainable synthetic methods for aryl azo‐dimers can be developed using the visible‐light irradiation of aryl azides to form triplet arylnitrenes.

     
    more » « less
  4. The effect of precursor molecular structural features on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth was investigated for a number of precursor functional groups. SOA yields were determined for straight chain alkanes, some oxygenated, up to highly functionalized hydrocarbons, the largest being β-caryophyllene. Organic SOA yield was determined by comparing to standard particle size changes with SO 2 in a photolytic flow reactor. SOA formation was initiated with OH radicals from HONO photolysis and continued with NO and NO 2 present at single-digit nmol/mol levels. Seed particles of ∼10 nm diameter grew by condensation of SOA material and growth was monitored with a nanoparticle sizing system. Cyclic compounds dominate as the highest SOA yielding structural feature, followed by C-10 species with double bonds, with linear alkanes and isoprene most ineffective. Carbonyls led to significant increases in growth compared to the alkanes while alcohols, triple-bond compounds, aromatics, and epoxides were only slightly more effective than alkanes at producing SOA. When more than one double bond is present, or a double bond is present with another functional group as seen with 1, 2-epoxydec-9-ene, SOA yield is notably increased. Placement of the double bond is important as well with β-pinene having an SOA yield approximately 5 times that of α-pinene. In our photolytic flow reactor, first-generation oxidation products are presumed to be the primary species contributing to SOA thus the molecular structure of the precursor is determinant. We also conducted proton-transfer mass spectrometry measurements of α-pinene photooxidation and significant signals were observed at masses for multifunctional nitrates and possibly peroxy radicals. The mass spectrometer measurements were also used to estimate a HONO photolysis rate. 
    more » « less
  5. We report the palladium-catalyzed gem-difluoroallylation of aryl halides and pseudo halides with 3,3-difluoroallyl boronates in high yield with high regioselectivity, and we report the preparation of the 3,3-difluoroallyl boronate reactants by a copper-catalyzed defluorinative borylation of inexpensive gaseous 3,3,3-trifluoropropene with bis(pinacola-to) diboron. The gem-difluoroallylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides proceeds with low catalyst loading (0.1 mol% [Pd]) and tolerates a wide range of functional groups, including primary alcohols, secondary amines, ethers, ketones, esters, amides, aldehydes, nitriles, halides, and nitro groups. This protocol extends to aryl iodides, chlorides, and triflates, as well as substituted difluoroallyl boronates, providing a versatile synthesis of gem-difluoroallyl arenes that we show to be valuable intermediates to a series of fluorinated building blocks 
    more » « less