skip to main content


Title: What can insects teach us about hearing loss?
Abstract

Over the last three decades, insects have been utilized to provide a deep and fundamental understanding of many human diseases and disorders. Here, we present arguments for insects as models to understand general principles underlying hearing loss. Despite ∼600 million years since the last common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates, we share an overwhelming degree of genetic homology particularly with respect to auditory organ development and maintenance. Despite the anatomical differences between human and insect auditory organs, both share physiological principles of operation. We explain why these observations are expected and highlight areas in hearing loss research in which insects can provide insight. We start by briefly introducing the evolutionary journey of auditory organs, the reasons for using insect auditory organs for hearing loss research, and the tools and approaches available in insects. Then, the first half of the review focuses on auditory development and auditory disorders with a genetic cause. The second half analyses the physiological and genetic consequences of ageing and short‐ and long‐term changes as a result of noise exposure. We finish with complex age and noise interactions in auditory systems. In this review, we present some of the evidence and arguments to support the use of insects to study mechanisms and potential treatments for hearing loss in humans. Obviously, insects cannot fully substitute for all aspects of human auditory function and loss of function, although there are many important questions that can be addressed in an animal model for which there are important ethical, practical and experimental advantages.image

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2037828
NSF-PAR ID:
10481465
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley-Blackwell
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Journal of Physiology
Volume:
602
Issue:
2
ISSN:
0022-3751
Format(s):
Medium: X Size: p. 297-316
Size(s):
p. 297-316
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We analyze the role of spectral diffusion in the problem of many‐body delocalization in quantum dots and in extended systems. The spectral diffusion parametrically enhances delocalization, modifying the scaling of the delocalization threshold with the interaction coupling constant.image

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    A straightforward method for the palladium‐catalyzed triarylation of heteroarylmethanes at the methyl group has been developed. The reaction works with a variety of aryl halides, enabling the rapid synthesis of triaryl(heteroaryl)methanes in moderate to excellent yields.

    magnified image

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    A one‐pot synthesis of tetrasubstituted acrylaldehydesviadifunctionalization of aryl propynyl ethers has been achieved, which involves a trifluoromethylthiolation process and a radical 1,4‐aryl migration from oxygen to carbon. The reaction shows excellent conversion of aryl propynyl ethers into trifluoromethyl‐containing α,β‐unsaturated aldehydes through a radical pathway.

    magnified image

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    A new organocatalyst, the selenolate anion [RSe], generated from bench‐stable and commercially available diphenyl diselenide or from phenyl benzyl selenide (10 mol%) is introduced. Benchmarking is performed in the conversion of benzylic chlorides intotrans‐stilbenes selectively at room temperature. Mechanistic studies support the intermediacy of the selenolate anion and of 1,2‐diphenylethyl phenyl selenide.

    magnified image

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The enantioselective palladium‐catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of fully substituted α‐hydroxy acyclic enol carbonates providing tetrasubstituted benzoin derivatives is reported. Investigation into the transformation revealed that preparation of the starting material as a single enolate isomer is crucial for optimal enantioselectivity. The obtained alkylation products contain multiple reactive sites that can be utilized toward the synthesis of stereochemically rich derivatives.

    magnified image

     
    more » « less