skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on December 20, 2024

Title: Oscillatory flows in compliant conduits at arbitrary Womersley number
We develop a theory of fluid--structure interaction (FSI) between an oscillatory Newtonian fluid flow and a compliant conduit. We consider the canonical geometries of a 2D channel with a deformable top wall and an axisymmetric deformable tube. Focusing on the hydrodynamics, we employ a linear relationship between wall displacement and hydrodynamic pressure, which has been shown to be suitable for a leading-order-in-slenderness theory. The slenderness assumption also allows the use of lubrication theory, and the flow rate is related to the pressure gradient (and the tube/wall deformation) via the classical solutions for oscillatory flow in a channel and in a tube (attributed to Womersley). Then, by two-way coupling the oscillatory flow and the wall deformation via the continuity equation, a one-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) governing the instantaneous pressure distribution along the conduit is obtained, without \textit{a priori} assumptions on the magnitude of the oscillation frequency (\textit{i.e.}, at arbitrary Womersley number). We find that the cycle-averaged pressure (for harmonic pressure-controlled conditions) deviates from the expected steady pressure distribution, suggesting the presence of a streaming flow. An analytical perturbative solution for a weakly deformable conduit is obtained to rationalize how FSI induces such streaming. In the case of a compliant tube, the results obtained from the proposed reduced-order PDE and its perturbative solutions are validated against three-dimensional, two-way-coupled direct numerical simulations. We find good agreement between theory and simulations for a range of dimensionless parameters characterizing the oscillatory flow and the FSI, demonstrating the validity of the proposed theory of oscillatory flows in compliant conduits at arbitrary Womersley number.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2029540
NSF-PAR ID:
10481624
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Publisher / Repository:
American Physical Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Physical Review Fluids
Volume:
8
Issue:
12
ISSN:
2469-990X
Page Range / eLocation ID:
124102
Subject(s) / Keyword(s):
["Flow-vessel interactions","Lubrication theory","Microfluidics","Fluid Dynamics"]
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Experiments have shown that flow in compliant microchannels can become unstable at a much lower Reynolds number than the corresponding flow in a rigid conduit. Therefore, it has been suggested that the wall's elastic compliance can be exploited towards new modalities of microscale mixing. While previous studies mainly focused on the local instability induced by the fluid–structure interactions (FSIs) in the system, we derive a one-dimensional (1-D) model to study the FSI's effect on the global instability. The proposed 1-D FSI model is tailored to long, shallow rectangular microchannels with a deformable top wall, similar to the experiments. Going beyond the usual lubrication flows analysed in these geometries, we include finite fluid inertia and couple the reduced flow equations to a novel reduced 1-D wall deformation equation. Although a quantitative comparison with previous experiments is difficult, the behaviours of the proposed model show, qualitatively, agreement with the experimental observations, and capture several key effects. Specifically, we find the critical conditions under which the inflated base state of the 1-D FSI model is linearly unstable to infinitesimal perturbations. The critical Reynolds numbers predicted are in agreement with experimental observations. The unstable modes are highly oscillatory, with frequencies close to the natural frequency of the wall, suggesting that the observed instabilities are resonance phenomena. Furthermore, during the start-up from an undeformed initial state, self-sustained oscillations can be triggered by FSI. Our modelling framework can be applied to other microfluidic systems with similar geometric scale separation under different operating conditions. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    A flow vessel with an elastic wall can deform significantly due to viscous fluid flow within it, even at vanishing Reynolds number (no fluid inertia). Deformation leads to an enhancement of throughput due to the change in cross‐sectional area. The latter gives rise to a non‐constant pressure gradient in the flow‐wise direction and, hence, to a nonlinear flow rate–pressure drop relation (unlike the Hagen–Poiseuille law for a rigid tube). Many biofluids are non‐Newtonian, and are well approximated by generalized Newtonian (say, power‐law) rheological models. Consequently, we analyze the problem of steady low Reynolds number flow of a generalized Newtonian fluid through a slender elastic tube by coupling fluid lubrication theory to a structural problem posed in terms of Donnell shell theory. A perturbative approach (in the slenderness parameter) yields analytical solutions for both the flow and the deformation. Using matched asymptotics, we obtain a uniformly valid solution for the tube's radial displacement, which features both a boundary layer and a corner layer caused by localized bending near the clamped ends. In doing so, we obtain a “generalized Hagen–Poiseuille law” for soft microtubes. We benchmark the mathematical predictions against three‐dimensional two‐way coupled direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow and deformation performed using the commercial computational engineering platform by ANSYS. The simulations show good agreement and establish the range of validity of the theory. Finally, we discuss the implications of the theory on the problem of the flow‐induced deformation of a blood vessel, which is featured in some textbooks.

     
    more » « less
  3. This paper presents results of an experimental investigation of solute transport in a simplified model of the spinal canal. The work aims to provide increased understanding of the mechanisms responsible for drug dispersion in intrathecal drug delivery (ITDD) procedures. The model consists of an annular channel bounded externally by a rigid transparent tube of circular section, representing the dura mater, and internally by an eccentric cylindrical compliant insert, representing the spinal cord. The tube, closed at one end, is connected to a rigid acrylic reservoir, representing the cranial cavity. The system is filled with water, whose properties are almost identical to those of the cerebrospinal fluid. A programmable peristaltic pump is employed to generate oscillatory motion at frequencies that are representative of those induced by the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Laser induced fluorescence is used to characterize the dispersion of fluorescent dye along the canal and into the cranial cavity for different values of the relevant Womersley number and different eccentricities of the annular section. The present work corroborates experimentally, for the first time, the existence of a steady bulk flow, associated with the mean Lagrangian motion, which plays a key role in the transport of the solute along the spinal canal. The measurements of solute dispersion are found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions obtained using a simplified transport equation derived earlier on the basis of a two-timescale asymptotic analysis. The experimental results underscore the importance of the eccentricity and its variations along the canal and identifies changes in the flow topology associated with differences in the Womersley number, with potential implications in guiding future designs of ITDD protocols. 
    more » « less
  4. A high-order in space spectral-element methodology for the solution of a strongly coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem is developed. A methodology is based on a partitioned solution of incompressible fluid equations on body-fitted grids, and nonlinearly-elastic solid deformation equations coupled via a fixed-point iteration approach with Aitken relaxation. A comprehensive verification strategy of the developed methodology is presented, including h-, p-and temporal refinement studies. An expected order of convergence is demonstrated first separately for the corresponding fluid and solid solvers, followed by a self-convergence study on a coupled FSI problem (self-convergence refers to a convergence to a reference solution obtained with the same solver at higher resolution). To this end, a new three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction benchmark is proposed for a verification of the FSI codes, which consists of a fluid flow in a channel with one rigid and one flexible wall. It is shown that, due to a consistent problem formulation, including initial and boundary conditions, a high-order spatial convergence on a fully coupled FSI problem can be demonstrated. Finally, a developed framework is applied successfully to a Direct Numerical Simulation of a turbulent flow in a channel interacting with a compliant wall, where the fluid-structure interface is fully resolved. 
    more » « less
  5. This work is motivated by a longstanding interest in the long time behavior of flow‐structure interaction (FSI) PDE dynamics. We consider a linearized compressible flow structure interaction (FSI) PDE model with a view of analyzing the stability properties of both the compressible flow and plate solution components. In our earlier work, we gave an answer in the affirmative to question of uniform stability for finite energy solutions of said compressible flow‐structure system, by means of a “frequency domain” approach. However, the frequency domain method of proof in that work is not “robust” (insofar as we can see), when one wishes to study longtime behavior of solutions of compressible flow‐structure PDE models, which track the appearance of the ambient state onto the boundary interface. Nor is a frequency domain approach in this earlier work availing when one wishes to consider the dynamics, in long time, of solutions to physically relevant nonlinear versions of the compressible flow‐structure PDE system under present consideration (e.g., the Navier–Stokes nonlinearity in the PDE flow component or a nonlinearity of Berger/Von Karman type in the plate equation). Accordingly, in the present work, we operate in the time domain by way of obtaining the necessary energy estimates, which culminate in an alternative proof for the uniform stability of finite energy compressible flow‐structure solutions. Since there is a need to avoid steady states in our stability analysis, as a prerequisite result, we also show here that zero is an eigenvalue for the generators of flow‐structure systems, whether the material derivative term be absent or present. Moreover, we provide a clean characterization of the (one dimensional) zero eigenspace, with or without material derivative, under an appropriate assumption on the underlying ambient vector field.

     
    more » « less