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Title: The Relationship between Madden–Julian Oscillation Moist Convective Circulations and Tropical Cyclone Genesis

The Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a planetary-scale weather system that creates a 30–60 day oscillation in zonal winds and precipitation in the tropics. Its envelope of enhanced rainfall forms over the Indian Ocean and moves slowly eastward before dissipating near the Date Line. The MJO modulates tropical cyclone (TC) genesis, intensity, and landfall in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans. This study examines the mechanisms by which the MJO alters TC genesis. In particular, MJO circulations are partitioned into Kelvin and Rossby waves for each of the developing, mature, and dissipating stages of the convective envelope, and locations of TC genesis are related to these circulations. Throughout the MJO’s convective life cycle, TC genesis is inhibited to the east of the convective envelope, and enhanced just west of the convective envelope. The inhibition of TC genesis to the east of the MJO is largely due to vertical motion associated with the Kelvin wave circulation, as is the enhancement of TC genesis just west of the MJO during the developing stage. During the mature and dissipating stages, the MJO’s Rossby gyres intensify, creating regions of low-level vorticity, favoring TC genesis to its west. Over the 36-year period considered here, the MJO modulation of TC genesis increases due to the intensification of the MJO’s Kelvin wave circulation.

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National Science Foundation
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