skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Tiny Pointers
This paper introduces a new data-structural object that we call the tiny pointer. In many applications, traditional log n-bit pointers can be replaced with o(log n)-bit tiny pointers at the cost of only a constant-factor time overhead and a small probability of failure. We develop a comprehensive theory of tiny pointers, and give optimal constructions for both fixed-size tiny pointers (i.e., settings in which all of the tiny pointers must be the same size) and variable-size tiny pointers (i.e., settings in which the average tiny-pointer size must be small, but some tiny pointers can be larger). If a tiny pointer references an element in an array filled to load factor 1 — δ, then the optimal tiny-pointer size is Θ(log log log n + log δ-1) bits in the fixed-size case, and Θ(log δ-1) expected bits in the variable-size case. Our tiny-pointer constructions also require us to revisit several classic problems having to do with balls and bins; these results may be of independent interest. Using tiny pointers, we revisit five classic data-structure problems. We show that: • A data structure storing n v-bit values for n keys with constant-time modifications/queries can be implemented to take space nv + O(n log(r) n) bits, for any constant r > 0, as long as the user stores a tiny pointer of expected size O(1) with each key—here, log(r) n is the r-th iterated logarithm. • Any binary search tree can be made succinct with constant-factor time overhead, and can even be made to be within O(n) bits of optimal if we allow for O(log* n)-time modifications—this holds even for rotation-based trees such as the splay tree and the red-black tree. • Any fixed-capacity key-value dictionary can be made stable (i.e., items do not move once inserted) with constant-time overhead and 1 + o(1) space overhead. • Any key-value dictionary that requires uniform-size values can be made to support arbitrary-size values with constant-time overhead and with an additional space consumption of log(r) n + O(log j) bits per j-bit value for an arbitrary constant r > 0 of our choice. • Given an external-memory array A of size (1 + ε)n containing a dynamic set of up to n key-value pairs, it is possible to maintain an internal-memory stash of size O(n log ε-1) bits so that the location of any key-value pair in A can be computed in constant time (and with no IOs). These are all well studied and classic problems, and in each case tiny pointers allow for us to take a natural space-inefficient solution that uses pointers and make it space-efficient for free.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2317838
NSF-PAR ID:
10485540
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
ACM-SIAM
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the 2023 Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA)
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Mikolaj Bojanczyk ; Emanuela Merelli ; David P. Woodruff (Ed.)
    Two equal length strings are a parameterized match (p-match) iff there exists a one-to-one function that renames the symbols in one string to those in the other. The Parameterized Suffix Tree (PST) [Baker, STOC' 93] is a fundamental data structure that handles various string matching problems under this setting. The PST of a text T[1,n] over an alphabet Σ of size σ takes O(nlog n) bits of space. It can report any entry in (parameterized) (i) suffix array, (ii) inverse suffix array, and (iii) longest common prefix (LCP) array in O(1) time. Given any pattern P as a query, a position i in T is an occurrence iff T[i,i+|P|-1] and P are a p-match. The PST can count the number of occurrences of P in T in time O(|P|log σ) and then report each occurrence in time proportional to that of accessing a suffix array entry. An important question is, can we obtain a compressed version of PST that takes space close to the text’s size of nlogσ bits and still support all three functionalities mentioned earlier? In SODA' 17, Ganguly et al. answered this question partially by presenting an O(nlogσ) bit index that can support (parameterized) suffix array and inverse suffix array operations in O(log n) time. However, the compression of the (parameterized) LCP array and the possibility of faster suffix array and inverse suffix array queries in compact space were left open. In this work, we obtain a compact representation of the (parameterized) LCP array. With this result, in conjunction with three new (parameterized) suffix array representations, we obtain the first set of PST representations in o(nlog n) bits (when logσ = o(log n)) as follows. Here ε > 0 is an arbitrarily small constant. - Space O(n logσ) bits and query time O(log_σ^ε n); - Space O(n logσlog log_σ n) bits and query time O(log log_σ n); and - Space O(n logσ log^ε_σ n) bits and query time O(1). The first trade-off is an improvement over Ganguly et al.’s result, whereas our third trade-off matches the optimal time performance of Baker’s PST while squeezing the space by a factor roughly log_σ n. We highlight that our trade-offs match the space-and-time bounds of the best-known compressed text indexes for exact pattern matching and further improvement is highly unlikely. 
    more » « less
  2. For nearly six decades, the central open question in the study of hash tables has been to determine the optimal achievable tradeoff curve between time and space. State-of-the-art hash tables offer the following guarantee: If keys/values are Θ(logn) bits each, then it is possible to achieve constant-time insertions/deletions/queries while wasting only O(loglogn) bits of space per key when compared to the information-theoretic optimum. Even prior to this bound being achieved, the target of O(log log n) wasted bits per key was known to be a natural end goal, and was proven to be optimal for a number of closely related problems (e.g., stable hashing, dynamic retrieval, and dynamically-resized filters). This paper shows that O(log log n) wasted bits per key is not the end of the line for hashing. In fact, for any k ∈ [log∗ n], it is possible to achieve O(k)-time insertions/deletions, O(1)-time queries, and O(log(k) n) = Ologlog···logn 􏰟 􏰞􏰝 􏰠 k wasted bits per key (all with high probability in n). This means that, each time we increase inser- tion/deletion time by an additive constant, we reduce the wasted bits per key exponentially. We further show that this tradeoff curve is the best achievable by any of a large class of hash tables, including any hash table designed using the current framework for making constant-time hash tables succinct. Our results hold not just for fixed-capacity hash tables, but also for hash tables that are dynamically resized (this is a fundamental departure from what is possible for filters); and for hash tables that store very large keys/values, each of which can be up to no(1) bits (this breaks with the conventional wisdom that larger keys/values should lead to more wasted bits per key). For very small keys/values, we are able to tighten our bounds to o(1) wasted bits per key, even when k = O(1). Building on this, we obtain a constant-time dynamic filter that uses n􏰕logε−1􏰖+nloge+o(n) bits of space for a wide choice of 
    more » « less
  3. We give the first communication-optimal document exchange protocol. For any n and k more » « less
  4. Many problems on data streams have been studied at two extremes of difficulty: either allowing randomized algorithms, in the static setting (where they should err with bounded probability on the worst case stream); or when only deterministic and infallible algorithms are required. Some recent works have considered the adversarial setting, in which a randomized streaming algorithm must succeed even on data streams provided by an adaptive adversary that can see the intermediate outputs of the algorithm. In order to better understand the differences between these models, we study a streaming task called “Missing Item Finding”. In this problem, for r < n, one is given a data stream a1 , . . . , ar of elements in [n], (possibly with repetitions), and must output some x ∈ [n] which does not equal any of the ai. We prove that, for r = nΘ(1) and δ = 1/poly(n), the space required for randomized algorithms that solve this problem in the static setting with error δ is Θ(polylog(n)); for algorithms in the adversarial setting with error δ, Θ((1 + r2/n)polylog(n)); and for deterministic algorithms, Θ(r/polylog(n)). Because our adversarially robust algorithm relies on free access to a string of O(r log n) random bits, we investigate a “random start” model of streaming algorithms where all random bits used are included in the space cost. Here we find a conditional lower bound on the space usage, which depends on the space that would be needed for a pseudo-deterministic algorithm to solve the problem. We also prove an Ω(r/polylog(n)) lower bound for the space needed by a streaming algorithm with < 1/2polylog(n) error against “white-box” adversaries that can see the internal state of the algorithm, but not predict its future random decisions. 
    more » « less
  5. Despite being one of the oldest data structures in computer science, hash tables continue to be the focus of a great deal of both theoretical and empirical research. A central reason for this is that many of the fundamental properties that one desires from a hash table are difficult to achieve simultaneously; thus many variants offering different trade-offs have been proposed.

    This article introduces Iceberg hashing, a hash table that simultaneously offers the strongest known guarantees on a large number of core properties. Iceberg hashing supports constant-time operations while improving on the state of the art for space efficiency, cache efficiency, and low failure probability. Iceberg hashing is also the first hash table to support a load factor of up to1 - o(1)while being stable, meaning that the position where an element is stored only ever changes when resizes occur. In fact, in the setting where keys are Θ (logn) bits, the space guarantees that Iceberg hashing offers, namely that it uses at most\(\log \binom{|U|}{n} + O(n \log \ \text{log} n)\)bits to storenitems from a universeU, matches a lower bound by Demaine et al. that applies to any stable hash table.

    Iceberg hashing introduces new general-purpose techniques for some of the most basic aspects of hash-table design. Notably, our indirection-free technique for dynamic resizing, which we call waterfall addressing, and our techniques for achieving stability and very-high probability guarantees, can be applied to any hash table that makes use of the front-yard/backyard paradigm for hash table design.

     
    more » « less