skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, April 12 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, April 13 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Numerical Simulations of Convective Three-dimensional Red Supergiant Envelopes
Abstract

We explore the three-dimensional properties of convective, luminous (L≈ 104.5–105L), hydrogen-rich envelopes of red supergiants (RSGs) based on radiation hydrodynamic simulations in spherical geometry usingAthena++. These computations comprise ≈30% of the stellar volume, include gas and radiation pressure, and self-consistently track the gravitational potential for the outer ≈3Mof the simulatedM≈ 15Mstars. This work reveals a radius,Rcorr, around which the nature of the convection changes. Forr>Rcorr, though still optically thick, diffusion of photons dominates the energy transport. Such a regime is well studied in less luminous stars, but in RSGs, the near- (or above-)Eddington luminosity (due to opacity enhancements at ionization transitions) leads to the unusual outcome of denser regions moving outward rather than inward. This region of the star also has a large amount of turbulent pressure, yielding a density structure much more extended than 1D stellar evolution predicts. This “halo” of material will impact predictions for both shock breakout and early lightcurves of Type IIP supernovae. Inside ofRcorr, we find a nearly flat entropy profile as expected in the efficient regime of mixing-length theory (MLT). Radiation pressure provides ≈1/3 of the support against gravity in this region. Our comparisons to MLT suggest a mixing length ofα= 3–4, consistent with the sizes of convective plumes seen in the simulations. The temporal variability of these 3D models is mostly on the timescale of the convective plume lifetimes (≈300 days), with amplitudes consistent with those observed photometrically.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1663688
NSF-PAR ID:
10486224
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
929
Issue:
2
ISSN:
0004-637X
Format(s):
Medium: X Size: Article No. 156
Size(s):
["Article No. 156"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    About ten percent of Sun-like (1–2M) stars will engulf a 1–10MJplanet as they expand during the red giant branch (RGB) or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of their evolution. Once engulfed, these planets experience a strong drag force in the star’s convective envelope and spiral inward, depositing energy and angular momentum. For these mass ratios, the inspiral takes ∼10–102yr (∼102–103orbits); the planet undergoes tidal disruption at a radius of ∼1R. We use the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) software instrument to track the stellar response to the energy deposition while simultaneously evolving the planetary orbit. For RGB stars, as well as AGB stars withMp≲ 5MJplanets, the star responds quasi-statically but still brightens measurably on a timescale of years. In addition, asteroseismic indicators, such as the frequency spacing or rotational splitting, differ before and after engulfment. For AGB stars, engulfment of anMp≳ 5MJplanet drives supersonic expansion of the envelope, causing a bright, red, dusty eruption similar to a “luminous red nova.” Based on the peak luminosity, color, duration, and expected rate of these events, we suggest that engulfment events on the AGB could be a significant fraction of low-luminosity red novae in the Galaxy. We do not find conditions where the envelope is ejected prior to the planet’s tidal disruption, complicating the interpretation of short-period giant planets orbiting white dwarfs as survivors of common envelope evolution.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Luminous red novae (LRNe) are transients characterized by low luminosities and expansion velocities, and they are associated with mergers or common-envelope ejections in stellar binaries. Intermediate-luminosity red transients (ILRTs) are an observationally similar class with unknown origins, but they are generally believed to be either electron-capture supernovae in super-asymptotic giant branch stars or outbursts in dusty luminous blue variables (LBVs). In this paper, we present a systematic sample of eight LRNe and eight ILRTs detected as part of the Census of the Local Universe (CLU) experiment on the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). The CLU experiment spectroscopically classifies ZTF transients associated with nearby (<150 Mpc) galaxies, achieving 80% completeness formr< 20 mag. Using the ZTF-CLU sample, we derive the first systematic LRNe volumetric rate of7.83.7+6.5×105Mpc−3yr−1in the luminosity range −16 ≤Mr≤ −11 mag. We find that, in this luminosity range, the LRN rate scales asdN/dLL2.5±0.3—significantly steeper than the previously derived scaling ofL−1.4±0.3for lower-luminosity LRNe (MV≥ −10 mag). The steeper power law for LRNe at high luminosities is consistent with the massive merger rates predicted by binary population synthesis models. We find that the rates of the brightest LRNe (Mr≤ −13 mag) are consistent with a significant fraction of them being progenitors of double compact objects that merge within a Hubble time. For ILRTs, we derive a volumetric rate of2.61.4+1.8×106Mpc−3yr−1forMr≤ −13.5 mag, which scales asdN/dLL2.5±0.5. This rate is ∼1%–5% of the local core-collapse supernova rate and is consistent with theoretical ECSN rate estimates.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Understanding the formation of stellar clusters requires following the interplay between gas and newly formed stars accurately. We therefore couple the magnetohydrodynamics codeFLASHto theN-body codeph4and the stellar evolution codeSeBausing the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to model stellar dynamics, evolution, and collisionalN-body dynamics and the formation of binary and higher-order multiple systems, while implementing stellar feedback in the form of radiation, stellar winds, and supernovae inFLASH. We here describe the algorithms used for each of these processes. We denote this integrated package Torch. We then use this novel numerical method to simulate the formation and early evolution of several examples of open clusters of ∼1000 stars formed from clouds with a mass range of 103Mto 105M. Analyzing the effects of stellar feedback on the gas and stars of the natal clusters, we find that in these examples, the stellar clusters are resilient to disruption, even in the presence of intense feedback. This can even slightly increase the amount of dense, Jeans unstable gas by sweeping up shells; thus, a stellar wind strong enough to trap its own H iiregion shows modest triggering of star formation. Our clusters are born moderately mass segregated, an effect enhanced by feedback, and retained after the ejection of their natal gas, in agreement with observations.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Isolated dwarf galaxies usually exhibit robust star formation but satellite dwarf galaxies are often devoid of young stars, even in Milky Way–mass groups. Dwarf galaxies thus offer an important laboratory of the environmental processes that cease star formation. We explore the balance of quiescent and star-forming galaxies (quenched fractions) for a sample of ∼400 satellite galaxies around 30 Local Volume hosts from the Exploration of Local VolumE Satellites (ELVES) Survey. We present quenched fractions as a function of satellite stellar mass, projected radius, and host halo mass, to conclude that overall, the quenched fractions are similar to the Milky Way, dropping below 50% at satelliteM*≈ 108M. We may see hints that quenching is less efficient at larger radii. Through comparison with the semianalytic modeling codeSatGen, we are also able to infer average quenching times as a function of satellite mass in host halo-mass bins. There is a gradual increase in quenching time with satellite stellar mass rather than the abrupt change from rapid to slow quenching that has been inferred for the Milky Way. We also generally infer longer average quenching times than recent hydrodynamical simulations. Our results are consistent with models that suggest a wide range of quenching times are possible via ram pressure stripping, depending on the clumpiness of the circumgalactic medium, the orbits of the satellites, and the degree of earlier preprocessing.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    UsingAthena++, we perform 3D radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of the radiative breakout of the shock wave in the outer envelope of a red supergiant (RSG) that has suffered core collapse and will become a Type IIP supernova. The intrinsically 3D structure of the fully convective RSG envelope yields key differences in the brightness and duration of the shock breakout (SBO) from that predicted in a 1D stellar model. First, the lower-density “halo” of material outside of the traditional photosphere in 3D models leads to a shock breakout at lower densities than 1D models. This would prolong the duration of the shock breakout flash at any given location on the surface to ≈1–2 hr. However, we find that the even larger impact is the intrinsically 3D effect associated with large-scale fluctuations in density that cause the shock to break out at different radii at different times. This substantially prolongs the SBO duration to ≈3–6 hr and implies a diversity of radiative temperatures, as different patches across the stellar surface are at different stages of their radiative breakout and cooling at any given time. These predicted durations are in better agreement with existing observations of SBO. The longer durations lower the predicted luminosities by a factor of 3–10 (Lbol∼ 1044erg s−1), and we derive the new scalings of brightness and duration with explosion energies and stellar properties. These intrinsically 3D properties eliminate the possibility of using observed rise times to measure the stellar radius via light-travel time effects.

     
    more » « less