skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


This content will become publicly available on November 17, 2024

Title: Multicolor dye-based flow structure visualization for seal-whisker geometry characterized by computer vision
Pinniped vibrissae possess a unique and complex three-dimensional topography, which has beneficial fluid flow characteristics such as substantial reductions in drag, lift, and vortex induced vibration. To understand and leverage these effects, the downstream vortex dynamics must be studied. Dye visualization is a traditional qualitative method of capturing these downstream effects, specifically in comparative biological investigations where complex equipment can be prohibitive. High-fidelity numerical simulations or experimental particle image velocimetry are commonplace for quantitative high-resolution flow measurements, but are computationally expensive, require costly equipment, and can have limited measurement windows. This study establishes a method for extracting quantitative data from standard dye visualization experiments on seal whisker geometries by leveraging novel but intuitive computer vision techniques, which maintain simplicity and an advantageous large experimental viewing window while automating the extraction of vortex frequency, position, and advection. Results are compared to direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for comparable geometries. Power spectra and Strouhal numbers show consistent behavior between methods for a Reynolds number of 500, with minima at the canonical geometry wavelength of 3.43 and a peak frequency of 0.2 for a Reynolds number of 250. The vortex tracking reveals a clear increase in velocity from roll-up to 3.5 whisker diameters downstream, with a strong overlap with the DNS data but shows steady results beyond the limited DNS window. This investigation provides insight into a valuable bio-inspired engineering model while advancing an analytical methodology that can readily be applied to a broad range of comparative biological studies.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2037582 2035789
NSF-PAR ID:
10487685
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
IOP Science
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Volume:
19
Issue:
1
ISSN:
1748-3182
Page Range / eLocation ID:
016004
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    The focus of this paper is a numerical simulation study of the flow dynamics in a periodic porous medium to analyse the physics of a symmetry-breaking phenomenon, which causes a deviation in the direction of the macroscale flow from that of the applied pressure gradient. The phenomenon is prominent in the range of porosity from 0.43 to 0.72 for circular solid obstacles. It is the result of the flow instabilities formed when the surface forces on the solid obstacles compete with the inertial force of the fluid flow in the turbulent regime. We report the origin and mechanism of the symmetry-breaking phenomenon in periodic porous media. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate turbulent flow in a homogeneous porous medium consisting of a periodic, square lattice arrangement of cylindrical solid obstacles. Direct numerical simulation is used to simulate the transient stages during symmetry breakdown and also to validate the LES method. Quantitative and qualitative observations are made from the following approaches: (1) macroscale momentum budget and (2) two- and three-dimensional flow visualization. The phenomenon draws its roots from the amplification of a flow instability that emerges from the vortex shedding process. The symmetry-breaking phenomenon is a pitchfork bifurcation that can exhibit multiple modes depending on the local vortex shedding process. The phenomenon is observed to be sensitive to the porosity, solid obstacle shape and Reynolds number. It is a source of macroscale turbulence anisotropy in porous media for symmetric solid-obstacle geometries. In the macroscale, the principal axis of the Reynolds stress tensor is not aligned with any of the geometric axes of symmetry, nor with the direction of flow. Thus, symmetry breaking in porous media involves unresolved flow physics that should be taken into consideration while modelling flow inhomogeneity in the macroscale. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    The spanwise undulated cylinder geometry inspired by seal whiskers has been shown to alter shedding frequency and reduce fluid forces significantly compared to smooth cylindrical geometry. Prior research has parameterized the whisker-inspired geometry and demonstrated the relevance of geometric variations on force reduction properties. Among the geometric parameters, undulation wavelength was identified as a significant contributor to forcing changes. To analyze the effect of undulation wavelength, a thorough investigation isolating changes in wavelength is performed to expand upon previous research that parameterized whisker-inspired geometry and the relevance of geometric variations on the force reduction properties. A set of five whisker-inspired models of varying wavelength are computationally simulated at a Reynolds number of 250 and compared with an equivalent aspect ratio smooth elliptical cylinder. Above a critical non-dimensional value, the undulation wavelength reduces the amplitude and frequency of vortex shedding accompanied by a reduction in oscillating lift force. Frequency shedding is tied to the creation of wavelength-dependent vortex structures which vary across the whisker span. These vortices produce distinct shedding modes in which the frequency and phase of downstream structures interact to decrease the oscillating lift forces on the whisker model with particular effectiveness around the wavelength values typically found in nature. The culmination of these location-based modes produces a complex and spanwise-dependent lift frequency spectra at those wavelengths exhibiting maximum force reduction. Understanding the mechanisms of unsteady force reduction and the relationship between undulation wavelength and frequency spectra is critical for the application of this geometry to vibration tuning and passive flow control for vortex-induced vibration (VIV) reduction.

     
    more » « less
  3. Insects rely on their olfactory system to forage, prey, and mate. They can sense odor emitted from sources of their interest, use their highly efficient flapping-wing mechanism to follow odor trails, and track down odor sources. During such an odor-guided navigation, flapping wings not only serve as propulsors for generating lift and maneuvering, but also actively draw odors to the antennae via wing-induced flow. This helps enhance olfactory detection by mimicking “sniffing” in mammals. However, due to a lack of quantitative measuring tools and empirical evidence, we have a poor understanding of how the induced flow generated by flapping kinematics affects the odor landscape. In the current study, we designed a canonical simulation to investigate the impact of flapping motion on the odor plume structures. A sphere was placed in the upstream and releases odor at the Schmidt number of 0.71 and Reynolds number of 200. In the downstream, an ellipsoidal airfoil underwent a pitch-plunge motion. Both two- and three-dimensional cases are simulated with Strouhal number of 0.9. An in-house immersed-boundary-method-based CFD solver was applied to investigate the effects of flapping locomotion on the wake topology and odor distribution. From our simulation results, remarkable resemblances were observed between the wake topology and odor landscape. For the 2D case, an inverse von Kármán vortex street was formed in the downstream. For the 3D case, the wake bifurcates and forms two branches of horseshoe-like vortices. The results revealed in this study have the potential to advance our understanding of the odor-tracking capability of insects navigation and lead to transformative advancements in unmanned aerial devices that will have the potential to greatly impact national security equipment and industrial applications for chemical disaster, drug trafficking detection, and GPS-denied indoor environment. 
    more » « less
  4. One of the key factors in simulating realistic wall-bounded flows at high Reynolds numbers is the selection of an appropriate turbulence model for the steady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) equations. In this investigation, the performance of several turbulence models was explored for the simulation of steady, compressible, turbulent flow on complex geometries (concave and convex surface curvatures) and unstructured grids. The turbulence models considered were the Spalart–Allmaras model, the Wilcox k- ω model and the Menter shear stress transport (SST) model. The FLITE3D flow solver was employed, which utilizes a stabilized finite volume method with discontinuity capturing. A numerical benchmarking of the different models was performed for classical Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) cases, such as supersonic flow over an isothermal flat plate, transonic flow over the RAE2822 airfoil, the ONERA M6 wing and a generic F15 aircraft configuration. Validation was performed by means of available experimental data from the literature as well as high spatial/temporal resolution Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). For attached or mildly separated flows, the performance of all turbulence models was consistent. However, the contrary was observed in separated flows with recirculation zones. Particularly, the Menter SST model showed the best compromise between accurately describing the physics of the flow and numerical stability. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    High fidelity near-wall velocity measurements in wall bounded fluid flows continue to pose a challenge and the resulting limitations on available experimental data cloud our understanding of the near-wall velocity behavior in turbulent boundary layers. One of the challenges is the spatial averaging and limited spatial resolution inherent to cross-correlation-based particle image velocimetry (PIV) methods. To circumvent this difficulty, we implement an explicit no-slip boundary condition in a wavelet-based optical flow velocimetry (wOFV) method. It is found that the no-slip boundary condition on the velocity field can be implemented in wOFV by transforming the constraint to the wavelet domain through a series of algebraic linear transformations, which are formulated in terms of the known wavelet filter matrices, and then satisfying the resulting constraint on the wavelet coefficients using constrained optimization for the optical flow functional minimization. The developed method is then used to study the classical problem of a turbulent channel flow using synthetic data from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experimental particle image data from a zero pressure gradient, high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. The results obtained by successfully implementing the no-slip boundary condition are compared to velocity measurements from wOFV without the no-slip condition and to a commercial PIV code, using the velocity from the DNS as ground truth. It is found that wOFV with the no-slip condition successfully resolves the near-wall profile with enhanced accuracy compared to the other velocimetry methods, as well as other derived quantities such as wall shear and turbulent intensity, without sacrificing accuracy away from the wall, leading to state of the art measurements in they+<1region of the turbulent boundary layer when applied to experimental particle images.

     
    more » « less